Optimized management practices synergistically improved grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency by enhancing post-heading carbon and nitrogen metabolism in super hybrid rice
Deng, Y and Ye, J and Liu, K and Harrison, MT and Zhong, X and Wang, C and Tain, X and Huang, L and Zhang, Y, Optimized management practices synergistically improved grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency by enhancing post-heading carbon and nitrogen metabolism in super hybrid rice, Agronomy, 13, (11) Article 13. ISSN 2073-4395 (2023) [Refereed Article]
The super hybrid rice breeding program in China has raised genetic yield ceilings through mor-phological improvements and inter-subspecific heterosis. Despite this, little information on the physiological basis underlying this yield transformation exists, and less so on the genotype x envi-ronment x management conditions enabling consistent yield gains. Here, we assess grain yield, photosynthetic physiology, and leaf carbon and nitrogen (N) metabolic properties of super rice (Y-liangyou900) under four management practices (i.e., zero-fertilizer control, CK; farmersí prac-tice, FP; high-yield and high-efficiency management, OPT1; and super-high-yield management, OPT2) using a field experiment conducted over five years. Grain yield and agronomic N use effi-ciency (AEN) of OPT2 were 15% and 10% higher than OPT1, and 30% and 78% higher than FP, respectively. The superior yields of OPT2 were attributed to higher source production capacity, that is, higher leaf photosynthetic rate, carbon metabolic enzyme activity (i.e., AGP and SPS), nitrogen metabolic enzyme activity (i.e., NR, GS, and GOGAT), soluble protein and sugar content, and de-layed leaf senescence (the latter due to elevated activity of protective enzyme systems) during grain filling. The higher AEN of OPT2 was associated with higher activity of leaf carbon metabolic enzyme (i.e., AGP and SPS), nitrogen metabolic enzyme (i.e., NR, GS, GDH, and GOGAT) and protective enzyme (POD) after heading, and lower C/N ratio in grains. We conclude that optimized man-agement (optimized water and fertilizer management with appropriate dense planting) improved grain yield and N use efficiency simultaneously by enhancing post-heading leaf carbon and N metabolism and delayed leaf senescence.
super hybrid rice; crop management; grain yield; N use efficiency; carbon metabolism; nitrogen metabolism