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Marine planktonic dinophysoid dinoflagellates (order Dinophysales): 60 years of species-level distributions in Australian waters


Hallegraeff, GM and Eriksen, RS and Davies, CH and Uribe-Palomino, J, Marine planktonic dinophysoid dinoflagellates (order Dinophysales): 60 years of species-level distributions in Australian waters, Australian Systematic Botany, 35, (6) pp. 469-500. ISSN 1030-1887 (2022) [Refereed Article]

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Copyright (2022) The Author(s) (or their employer(s)). Published by CSIRO Publishing. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (

DOI: doi:10.1071/SB21023


We reviewed 9350 Australian species-level records and confirmed 64 species of the marine planktonic dinoflagellate genera Dinophysis Ehrenb. (17 species), Phalacroma F.Stein (12), Metaphalacroma L.S.Tai (1), Pseudophalacroma Jörg. (1), Ornithocercus F.Stein (7), Histioneis F.Stein (11 spp.), Parahistioneis Kof. & Skogsb. (4), Histiophysis (Kof. & Mich.) Kof. & Skogsb. (1), Citharistes F.Stein (2) and Amphisolenia F.Stein (8), from the period 1938–2019. The widespread D. acuminata Clap. & J.Lachm., D. acuta Ehrenb., D. caudata Kent, D. fortii Pavill., and D. tripos Gourret have attracted attention as causative organisms of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning in temperate Australian waters. We discriminate between Dinophysis and Phalacroma. We newly report from Australian waters O. assimilis Jörg., Metaphalacroma skogsbergii L.S.Tai, Parahistioneis pieltainii Osorio-Taffal, Amphisolenia extensa Kof., A. inflata G.Murr. & Whitt. and A. rectangulata Kof. We rediscovered Histiophysis rugosa (Kof. & Mich.) Kof. & Skogsb. here illustrated with two cells from the Coral Sea. The ornate tropical genera Ornithocercus and Histioneis are excellent warm-water indicators, reflecting the southward reach of the East Australian and Leeuwin currents, whereas D. truncata Cleve is a cold-water Subantarctic species.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:Australia, Australian oceans, diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, Dinophysis, dinophysoid dinoflagellates, Histioneis, Ornithocercus, Phalacroma, tropical indicator species
Research Division:Biological Sciences
Research Group:Plant biology
Research Field:Phycology (incl. marine grasses)
Objective Division:Environmental Management
Objective Group:Marine systems and management
Objective Field:Marine biodiversity
UTAS Author:Hallegraeff, GM (Professor Gustaaf Hallegraeff)
UTAS Author:Eriksen, RS (Dr Ruth Eriksen)
ID Code:154534
Year Published:2022
Deposited By:Directorate
Deposited On:2022-12-10
Last Modified:2023-01-13
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