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A novel CO2 thermal management system with battery two-phase (evaporative) cooling for electric vehicles


Yin, X and Fang, J and Wang, A and Song, Y and Cao, F and Wang, X, A novel CO2 thermal management system with battery two-phase (evaporative) cooling for electric vehicles, Results in Engineering, 16 Article 100735. ISSN 2590-1230 (2022) [Refereed Article]

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Copyright Statement

2022 Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) license (

DOI: doi:10.1016/j.rineng.2022.100735


Development of electric vehicles promotes an increasing demand for battery cooling, and secondary loop with glycol aqueous is widely used. However, the cooling performance is restricted, and it is heavily affected by the thermal delay because of large heat capacities. Two-phase evaporative cooling was demonstrated to have a better performance, but was disturbed by the potential thermal runway propagation of battery, due to the instability of evaporative cooling in chiller. In the presented paper, an effective solution was proposed based on a novel evaporative cooling system with transcritical CO2 cycles, which could always avoid this problem by a simple control strategy. Moreover, a control logical was set up and it was easy to achieve the energy management for cabin and battery. A mathematical model was developed, and it was validated by experiment. The vapor quality, cooling performance and flow velocity distributions were investigated at different operation conditions. Results showed that it could better deal with the problem of potential overheating and difficult-control. Under the condition of 0.5 kW battery power, the flow vapor quality along the channel increased from 0.23 to 0.94 of the conventional systems, while it only ranged from 0.23 to 0.4 in the proposed system. Additionally, the presented systems had 13.5%higher COP at the ambient temperature of 35 C. It could be used in electric vehicles thermal management systems for efficient battery cooling.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:CO2 thermal management system, battery two-phase cooling, vapor quality, evaporative cooling, automobile air conditioner
Research Division:Engineering
Research Group:Mechanical engineering
Research Field:Energy generation, conversion and storage (excl. chemical and electrical)
Objective Division:Energy
Objective Group:Energy storage, distribution and supply
Objective Field:Energy systems and analysis
UTAS Author:Wang, X (Professor Xiaolin Wang)
ID Code:154145
Year Published:2022
Deposited By:Engineering
Deposited On:2022-11-02
Last Modified:2023-01-10

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