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Influence of amino acids, and their interaction with volatiles and polyphenols, on the sensory properties of red wine


Nandorfy, DE and Watson, F and Likos, D and Siebert, T and Bindon, K and Kassara, S and Shellie, R and Keast, R and Francis, IL, Influence of amino acids, and their interaction with volatiles and polyphenols, on the sensory properties of red wine, Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, 28, (4) pp. 621-637. ISSN 1755-0238 (2022) [Refereed Article]

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Copyright Statement

2022 The Australian Wine Research Institute and Deakin University. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Viticulture and Oenology Inc. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) License ( which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed.

DOI: doi:10.1111/ajgw.12564


Background and Aims The effect of amino acids, and their interactions with volatiles and other non-volatiles, on in-mouth sensory properties of red wines is not known. This knowledge gap has been studied in a series of comprehensive sensory experiments.

Methods and Results A solvent-assisted flavour evaporation extract of Shiraz wine volatiles, a de-aromatised polyphenolic extract and amino acids were added to model wine and wine systems. Using full factorial designs, samples were evaluated by sensory quantitative descriptive analysis. Volatiles enhanced Viscous mouthfeel (F=20.0, P < 0.001), Sweetness (F=26.5, P < 0.001) and Body (F=81.4, P < 0.001), while the phenolic extract directed Astringency (F=170.5, P < 0.001) as well as Bitterness (F=7.3, P < 0.001) and suppressed Sweetness (F=16.5, P < 0.001). An amino acid by volatile interaction (F=4.2, P < 0.05) was found, and further experiments showed that L-proline enhanced Viscosity (F=5.0, P < 0.05), Sweetness (F=14.4, P < 0.001), Red fruit flavour (F=7.8, P < 0.001) and suppressed Astringency (F=6.1, P < 0.05) and Bitterness (F=7.0, P < 0.01), while L-glutamic acid imparted an Umami taste (F=5.0, P < 0.05) at wine-like concentration.

Conclusions For the first time, these causal experiments showed that amino acids can influence the taste, mouthfeel and flavour of red wine.

Significance of the Study This work provides insight into a new class of wine compounds of sensory significance that can be targeted by producers to directly influence wine flavour.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:amino acids, flavour, mouthfeel, taste
Research Division:Agricultural, Veterinary and Food Sciences
Research Group:Food sciences
Research Field:Beverage chemistry and beverage sensory science
Objective Division:Manufacturing
Objective Group:Processed food products and beverages (excl. dairy products)
Objective Field:Alcoholic beverages
UTAS Author:Shellie, R (Professor Robert Shellie)
ID Code:153529
Year Published:2022
Deposited By:TIA - Research Institute
Deposited On:2022-09-23
Last Modified:2022-12-23
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