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Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with hypertension in Nigeria: results from a country-wide survey


Adeke, AS and Chori, BS and Neupane, D and Sharman, JE and Odili, AN, Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with hypertension in Nigeria: results from a country-wide survey, Journal of Human Hypertension Article online ahead of print. ISSN 0950-9240 (2022) [Refereed Article]

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2022. The Authors. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License (, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

DOI: doi:10.1038/s41371-022-00673-1


With the rising prevalence of hypertension, especially in Africa, understanding the dynamics of socio-demographic and lifestyle factors is key in managing hypertension. To address existing gaps in evidence of these factors, this study was carried out. A cross-sectional survey using a modified WHO STEPS questionnaire was conducted among 3782 adult Nigerians selected from an urban and a rural community in one state in each of the six Nigerian regions. Among participants, 56.3% were women, 65.8% were married, 52.5% resided in rural areas, and 33.9% had tertiary education. Mean ages (SD) were 53.1 +- 13.6 years and 39.2 +- 15.0 years among hypertensive persons and their normotensive counterparts respectively. On lifestyle, 30.7% had low physical activity, 4.1% consumed tobacco currently, and 35.4% consumed alcohol currently. In comparison to unmarried status, being married (OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.41-2.50) or widowed (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.05-2.36) was significantly associated with hypertension, compared with never married. Compared with no formal education, primary (OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.12-1.85), secondary (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.04-1.81), and tertiary education (OR = 2.02, 95% CI: 1.57-2.60) were associated with hypertension. Low physical activity (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.05-1.42), alcohol consumption, (OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.02-1.37), and unemployment status (OR = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.07-1.88) were also associated with hypertension. Our study indicates an association of socio-demographic and lifestyle factors with hypertension, hence, there is a need for counselling, health education and policy formulation and implementation targeting these factors to prevent and control hypertension.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:blood pressure, hypertension, public health
Research Division:Biomedical and Clinical Sciences
Research Group:Cardiovascular medicine and haematology
Research Field:Cardiology (incl. cardiovascular diseases)
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Clinical health
Objective Field:Diagnosis of human diseases and conditions
UTAS Author:Sharman, JE (Professor James Sharman)
ID Code:153014
Year Published:2022
Web of Science® Times Cited:1
Deposited By:Menzies Institute for Medical Research
Deposited On:2022-09-01
Last Modified:2023-01-13
Downloads:4 View Download Statistics

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