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Fruit and vegetable consumption among South Asians: A systematic review and meta-analysis


Jayawardena, R and Jeyakumar, DT and Gamage, M and Sooriyaarachchi, P and Hills, AP, Fruit and vegetable consumption among South Asians: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews, 14, (6) pp. 1791-1800. ISSN 1871-4021 (2020) [Refereed Article]

Copyright Statement

Copyright 2020 Diabetes India

DOI: doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2020.09.004


Background and aims: Low consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with high prevalence of non-communicable diseases, especially among South Asians. The aim of our study was to systematically review data published on fruit and vegetable intake among South Asian countries.

Methods: This review included 43 studies conducted from December 1999 to 2019 among South Asians. Literature searching was undertaken in PubMed database and World Health Organization website. The main outcomes were pooled using random effect meta-analysis.

Results: The highest fruit consumption by both men and women (2.4 servings/day) was found in Bhutan (2004) while the lowest reports (0.43 servings/day) were from Sri Lanka (2011) and Bangladesh (2002). With regard to vegetable consumption, Indians (2007) had the lowest reported intake (0.9 servings/day), while the highest value, 3.8 servings/day, was reported in Bhutanese adults (2014). When both intakes were considered, the highest (4.28; 95% CI, 4.02 to 4.55; p=0.15; I2=51%, p<0.001) and the lowest (1.83; 95% CI, 1.41 to 2.25; p<0.001; I2=100%, p<0.001) pooled mean values, were attained for Bhutan and Bangladesh, respectively. The highest percentage of respondents (86.2%) achieved the World Health Organization recommendation of five fruit and vegetables (400 g) per day in Afghanistan (2013) whereas the lowest (0%) reported in Bangladesh (2005).

Conclusions: Residents of almost all South Asian countries appear to consume extremely low quantities of fruit and vegetables, lower than the World Health Organization recommendation. Hence, immediate initiatives should be implemented to enhance the intake of fruit and vegetables across the region.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:South Asia; fruit and vegetable intake; World Health Organization recommendation
Research Division:Health Sciences
Research Group:Health services and systems
Research Field:Health services and systems not elsewhere classified
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Other health
Objective Field:Other health not elsewhere classified
UTAS Author:Hills, AP (Professor Andrew Hills)
ID Code:152867
Year Published:2020
Web of Science® Times Cited:7
Deposited By:Research Performance and Analysis
Deposited On:2022-08-25
Last Modified:2022-09-19

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