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Influence of prenatal environment and birth parameters on amblyopia, strabismus, and anisometropia


Lingham, G and Mackey, DA and Sanfilippo, PG and Mountain, JA and Hewitt, AW and Newnham, JP and Yazar, S, Influence of prenatal environment and birth parameters on amblyopia, strabismus, and anisometropia, Journal of AAPOS, 24, (2) pp. 74.e1-74.e7. ISSN 1091-8531 (2020) [Refereed Article]

Copyright Statement

2020, American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc.

DOI: doi:10.1016/j.jaapos.2019.12.013


Methods Participants in the Raine Study have been followed from mid-gestation (n = 2,868 newborns) to young adulthood. At age 20 years, 1,344 participants had a comprehensive eye examination, including visual acuity and a detailed orthoptic assessment. Risk factors were determined from medical records and questionnaires completed by the mothers at 18 weeks' gestation. The main outcome measures were the proportions of participants with amblyopia, esotropia, exotropia, or anisometropia (defined as >1 D difference)..

Results Of the 1,125 white participants, 12 (1.1%) had amblyopia, 39 (3.5%) had strabismus, and 33 (2.9%) had anisometropia. In multivariable logistic regression, amblyopia was associated with a maternal history of pregnancy-induced hypertension (OR = 3.80; 95% CI, 1.19-12.13); esotropia, with lower gestational age (OR = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95-0.97) and a heavier placenta (OR = 1.02; 95% CI, 1.00-1.04); exotropia, with a maternal history of previously treated hypertension (OR = 4.00; 95% CI, 1.06-15.03) and maternal use of recreational drugs during early pregnancy (OR = 3.61; 95% CI, 1.06-15.03); and anisometropia, with older maternal age (OR = 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01-1.14) and an abnormal umbilical cord (OR = 2.39; 95% CI, 1.04-5.47)..

Conclusions The prevalence of amblyopia, strabismus, and anisometropia in this cohort was similar to that in other studies. Preterm birth and maternal health may have adverse effects on eye development.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:population-based sample, quality-of-life, risk-factors, childhood strabismus, prevalence, children, eye, vision,age,association
Research Division:Biomedical and Clinical Sciences
Research Group:Ophthalmology and optometry
Research Field:Ophthalmology
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Clinical health
Objective Field:Clinical health not elsewhere classified
UTAS Author:Mackey, DA (Professor David Mackey)
ID Code:152655
Year Published:2020
Web of Science® Times Cited:5
Deposited By:Medicine
Deposited On:2022-08-23
Last Modified:2022-10-20

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