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SUSTAIN drilling at Surtsey volcano, Iceland, tracks hydrothermal and microbiological interactions in basalt 50 years after eruption

Citation

Jackson, MD and Gudmundsson, MT and Weisenberger, TB and Michael Rhodes, J and Stefansson, A and Kleine, BI and Lippert, PC and Marquardt, JM and Reynolds, HI and Kuck, J and Marteinsson, VT and Vannier, P and Bach, W and Barich, A and Bergsten, P and Bryce, JG and Cappelletti, P and Couper, S and Fahnestock, MF and Gorny, CF and Grimaldi, C and Groh, M and Gudmundsson, A and Gunnlaugsson, AT and Hamlin, C and Hognadottir, T and Jonasson, K and Jonsson, SS and Jorgensen, SL and Klonowski, AM and Marshall, B and Massey, E and McPhie, J and Moore, JG and O'lafsson, ES and Onstad, SL and Perez, V and Prause, S and Snorrason, SP and Turke, A and White, JDL and Zimanowski, B, SUSTAIN drilling at Surtsey volcano, Iceland, tracks hydrothermal and microbiological interactions in basalt 50 years after eruption, Scientific Drilling, 25 pp. 35-46. ISSN 1816-8957 (2019) [Refereed Article]


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DOI: doi:10.5194/sd-25-35-2019

Abstract

The 2017 Surtsey Underwater volcanic System for Thermophiles, Alteration processes and INnovative concretes (SUSTAIN) drilling project at Surtsey volcano, sponsored in part by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), provides precise observations of the hydrothermal, geochemical, geomagnetic, and microbiological changes that have occurred in basaltic tephra and minor intrusions since explosive and effusive eruptions produced the oceanic island in 1963-1967. Two vertically cored boreholes, to 152 and 192 m below the surface, were drilled using filtered, UV-sterilized seawater circulating fluid to minimize microbial contamination. These cores parallel a 181 m core drilled in 1979. Introductory investigations indicate changes in material properties and whole-rock compositions over the past 38 years. A Surtsey subsurface observatory installed to 181 m in one vertical borehole holds incubation experiments that monitor in situ mineralogical and microbial alteration processes at 25-124 Celsius degree. A third cored borehole, inclined 55degree in a 264degree azimuthal direction to 354 m measured depth, provides further insights into eruption processes, including the presence of a diatreme that extends at least 100 m into the seafloor beneath the Surtur crater. The SUSTAIN project provides the first time-lapse drilling record into a very young oceanic basaltic volcano over a range of temperatures, 25-141 Celsius degree from 1979 to 2017, and subaerial and submarine hydrothermal fluid compositions. Rigorous procedures undertaken during the drilling operation protected the sensitive environment of the Surtsey Natural Preserve.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:SUSTAIN, drilling, Surtsey Natural Preserve
Research Division:Earth Sciences
Research Group:Geology
Research Field:Volcanology
Objective Division:Expanding Knowledge
Objective Group:Expanding knowledge
Objective Field:Expanding knowledge in the earth sciences
UTAS Author:McPhie, J (Professor Jocelyn McPhie)
ID Code:152628
Year Published:2019
Web of Science® Times Cited:13
Deposited By:Research Performance and Analysis
Deposited On:2022-08-22
Last Modified:2022-09-14
Downloads:0

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