Fabrication of a smartphone-based spectrophotometer and its application in monitoring concentrations of organic dyes
Koohkan, R and Kaykhaii, M and Sasani, M and Paull, B, Fabrication of a smartphone-based spectrophotometer and its application in monitoring concentrations of organic dyes, ACS Omega, 5, (48) pp. 31450-31455. ISSN 2470-1343 (2020) [Refereed Article]
In this study, an in-house constructed paper-based spectrophotometer is presented and demonstrated for detecting three organic dyes, namely, methylene blue, malachite green, and rhodamine B, and monitoring the efficiency of their removal from a wastewater sample with Sistan sand as a costless adsorbent. The compact design and light weight of this simple spectrophotometer delivered portability, with materials costing less than a dollar. Spectral analysis of the captured images was performed using free downloadable software from the Google Play store. The main experimental parameters affecting the efficiency of dye adsorption including pH, sorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, and contact time were investigated and optimized using the Taguchi design experimental method. Validation experiments were performed using a standard commercial bench-top spectrophotometer, and results were compared in terms of analytical performance, speed, and cost of analysis. The smartphone-based spectrometer was able to measure accurately, as confirmed using the commercial spectrometer, with enhanced sensitivity for methylene blue and rhodamine B. The combination of the high spectral accuracy of the paper-based spectrophotometer, together with sand as a readily accessible sorbent, enabled us to develop a powerful yet simple approach and tool for the removal and monitoring of dyes within wastewater samples, which is potentially available to everybody who owns a smartphone.