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Amoebic gill disease increases energy requirements and decreases hypoxia tolerance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts


Bowden, AJ and Adams, MB and Andrewartha, SJ and Elliott, NG and Frappell, PB and Clark, TD, Amoebic gill disease increases energy requirements and decreases hypoxia tolerance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, 265 Article 111128. ISSN 1095-6433 (2022) [Refereed Article]

Copyright Statement

2021 Published by Elsevier Inc.

DOI: doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2021.111128


Globally, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus) aquaculture is now routinely affected by amoebic gill disease (AGD; Neoparamoeba perurans). The disease proliferates throughout the summer and is implicated in decreasing tolerance of salmon to environmental perturbations, yet little empirical evidence exists to support these observations. Using salmon acclimated to 15 or 19C, our aim was to determine the effects of clinically light-moderate (industry-relevant) AGD on metabolism (O2rest and O2max), aerobic scope (O2max O2rest), excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), and hypoxia tolerance. An increase in O2rest (~8% and~13% increase within the 15 and 19C acclimation groups, respectively) with increasing disease signs demonstrated an increase in baseline energy requirements as the disease progressed. Conversely, O2max remained stable at both temperatures (~364mg O2 kg−1h−1), resulting in a decline in aerobic scope by 13 and 19% in the 15 and 19C groups, respectively. There was evidence of a decrease in hypoxia tolerance as the dissolved oxygen concentrations at loss of equilibrium increased by ~8% with more severe lesion coverage of the gills. These results suggest an increase in basal energy requirements and reduction in hypoxia tolerance as AGD proliferates, lending support to the idea that AGD reduces environmental tolerance. However, the lack of an effect of acclimation temperature indicates that the temperature-disease interaction may be more complicated than currently thought.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:AGD, aquaculture, hypoxia, metabolism, salmonids
Research Division:Agricultural, Veterinary and Food Sciences
Research Group:Fisheries sciences
Research Field:Aquaculture
Objective Division:Animal Production and Animal Primary Products
Objective Group:Fisheries - aquaculture
Objective Field:Aquaculture fin fish (excl. tuna)
UTAS Author:Bowden, AJ (Ms Alyssa Bowden)
UTAS Author:Adams, MB (Dr Mark Adams)
UTAS Author:Frappell, PB (Professor Peter Frappell)
UTAS Author:Clark, TD (Dr Timothy Clark)
ID Code:152033
Year Published:2022
Web of Science® Times Cited:1
Deposited By:Fisheries and Aquaculture
Deposited On:2022-08-10
Last Modified:2022-09-06

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