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Prevalence of workplace violence against pharmacists: A systematic review and meta-analysis


Bhagavathula, AS and Obamiro, K and Hussain, Z and Tesfaye, W, Prevalence of workplace violence against pharmacists: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Journal of the American Pharmacists Association ISSN 1544-3191 (2022) [Refereed Article]

Copyright Statement

Copyright 2022 American Pharmacists Associationฎ

DOI: doi:10.1016/j.japh.2022.07.012


Background: The rate of violence against healthcare workers is increasing worldwide. Pharmacists are the most accessible and frequently visited healthcare team members and are potentially more susceptible to violence than other healthcare workers.

Aim: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate the magnitude of workplace violence towards pharmacists.

Methods: We comprehensively searched PubMed, Scopus, and Embase from till December 2021 for pertinent studies that reported workplace violence incidents against pharmacists. Rates of workplace violence against pharmacists were calculated in a meta-analysis using a random-effects model.

Results: Overall, 624 articles were found, and six studies comprising 1896 pharmacists met the criteria for meta-analysis. The pooled estimate of workplace violence was 45% (95% CI: 30 – 60), and 39% (95% CI: 24 – 55) experienced violent events over preceding 12 months. Most of the pharmacists experienced violence (65%, 95% CI: 41 – 88), verbal abuse (50%, 95% CI: 36 – 65), threats (42%, 95% CI: 26 – 59) and assaults (27%, 95% CI: 9 – 46). Moreover, 56% (95% CI: 23 – 89) of the pharmacists reported experiencing physical and verbal violence in the past 12 months.

Conclusion: The analysis reveals the high rate of workplace violence in the pharmacy environment, with nearly half of pharmacists affected. While more studies are required, the limited evidence suggests the need to ensure safe workspaces in pharmacy environments through implementation of appropriate policies and legislation.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:violence, pharmacists, prevalence
Research Division:Biomedical and Clinical Sciences
Research Group:Pharmacology and pharmaceutical sciences
Research Field:Clinical pharmacy and pharmacy practice
Objective Division:Law, Politics and Community Services
Objective Group:Work and labour market
Objective Field:Workplace safety
UTAS Author:Obamiro, K (Dr Kehinde Obamiro)
ID Code:151913
Year Published:2022
Deposited By:UTAS Centre for Rural Health
Deposited On:2022-08-08
Last Modified:2022-09-12

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