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Assessing preventive health behaviors from COVID-19: a cross sectional study with health belief model in Golestan Province, Northern of Iran


Shahnazi, H and Ahmadi-Livani, M and Pahlavanzadeh, B and Rajabi, A and Hamrah, MS and Charkazi, A, Assessing preventive health behaviors from COVID-19: a cross sectional study with health belief model in Golestan Province, Northern of Iran, Infectious Diseases of Poverty, 9, (1) pp. 1-9. ISSN 2095-5162 (2020) [Refereed Article]


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Copyright 2020 The Author(s). Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativeco applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data

DOI: doi:10.1186/s40249-020-00776-2


Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new viral disease that has caused a pandemic in the world. Due to the lack of vaccines and definitive treatment, preventive behaviors are the only way to overcome the disease. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the preventive behaviors from the disease based on constructs of the health belief model.

Methods: In the present cross-sectional study during March 11-16, 2020, 750 individuals in Golestan Province of Iran were included in the study using the convenience sampling and they completed the questionnaires through cyberspace. Factor scores were calculated using the confirmatory factor analysis. The effects of different factors were separately investigated using the univariate analyses, including students sample t-test, ANOVA, and simple linear regression. Finally, the effective factors were examined by the multiple regression analysis at a significant level of 0.05 and through Mplus 7 and SPSS 16.

Results: The participants' mean age was 33.9 ± 9.45 years; and 57.1% of them had associate and bachelor's degrees. Multiple regression indicated that the mean score of preventive behavior from COVID-19 was higher in females than males, and greater in urban dwellers than rural dwellers. Furthermore, one unit increase in the standard deviation of factor scores of self-efficacy and perceived benefits increased the scores of preventive behavior from COVID-19 by 0.22 and 0.17 units respectively. On the contrary, one unit increase in the standard deviation of factor score of perceived barriers and fatalistic beliefs decreased the scores of the preventive behavior from COVID-19 by 0.36 and 0.19 units respectively.

Conclusions: Results of the present study indicated that female gender, perceived barriers, perceived self-efficacy, fatalistic beliefs, perceived interests, and living in city had the greatest preventive behaviors from COVID-19 respectively. Preventive interventions were necessary among males and villagers.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:COVID-19, health belief model, fatalism, preventive behavior, Iran
Research Division:Biomedical and Clinical Sciences
Research Group:Clinical sciences
Research Field:Infectious diseases
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Clinical health
Objective Field:Prevention of human diseases and conditions
UTAS Author:Hamrah, MS (Dr Mohammad Shoaib Hamrah)
ID Code:151835
Year Published:2020
Web of Science® Times Cited:91
Deposited By:UTAS Centre for Rural Health
Deposited On:2022-08-05
Last Modified:2022-10-24
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