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Reliability simulation of two component warm-standby system with repair, switching, and back-switching failures under three aging assumptions


Tenekedjiev, K and Cooley, S and Mednikarov, B and Fan, G and Nikolova, N, Reliability simulation of two component warm-standby system with repair, switching, and back-switching failures under three aging assumptions, Mathematics, 9, (20) pp. 1-40. ISSN 2227-7390 (2021) [Refereed Article]


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Copyright 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://

DOI: doi:10.3390/math9202547


We analyze the influence of repair on a two-component warm-standby system with switching and back-switching failures. The repair of the primary component follows a minimal process, i.e., it experiences full aging during the repair. The backup component operates only while the primary component is being repaired, but it can also fail in standby, in which case there will be no repair for the backup component (as there is no indication of the failure). Four types of system failures are investigated: both components fail to operate in a different order or one of two types of switching failures occur. The reliability behavior of the system is investigated under three different aging assumptions for the backup component during warm-standby: full aging, no aging, and partial aging. Four failure and repair distributions determine the reliability behavior of the system. We analyzed two cases-in the First Case, we utilized constant failure rate distributions. In the Second Case, we applied the more realistic time-dependent failure rates. We used three methods to identify the reliability characteristics of the system: analytical, numerical, and simulational. The analytical approach is limited and only viable for constant failure rate distributions i.e., the First Case. The numerical method integrates simultaneous Algebraic Differential Equations. It produces a solution in the First Case under any type of aging, and in the Second Case but only under the assumption of full aging in warm-standby. On the other hand, the developed simulation algorithms produce solutions for any set of distributions (i.e., the First Case and the Second Case) under any of the three aging assumptions for the backup component in standby. The simulation solution is quantitively verified by comparison with the other two methods, and qualitatively verified by comparing the solutions under the three aging assumptions. It is numerically proven that the full aging and no aging solutions could serve as bounds of the partial aging case even when the precise mechanism of partial aging is unknown.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:state probability functions, partial aging in standby, Monte Carlo simulation, qualitative and quantitative verification of simulation model
Research Division:Mathematical Sciences
Research Group:Applied mathematics
Research Field:Approximation theory and asymptotic methods
Objective Division:Expanding Knowledge
Objective Group:Expanding knowledge
Objective Field:Expanding knowledge in engineering
UTAS Author:Tenekedjiev, K (Professor Kiril Tenekedjiev)
UTAS Author:Cooley, S (Mr Simon Cooley)
UTAS Author:Fan, G (Mr Guixin Fan)
UTAS Author:Nikolova, N (Professor Nataliya Nikolova)
ID Code:151669
Year Published:2021
Web of Science® Times Cited:1
Deposited By:NC Maritime Engineering and Hydrodynamics
Deposited On:2022-08-03
Last Modified:2022-09-05
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