Recent advancements in open-tubular liquid chromatography and capillary electrochromatography during 2014-2018
Ahmed, MA and Felisilda, BMB and Quirino, JP, Recent advancements in open-tubular liquid chromatography and capillary electrochromatography during 2014-2018, Analytica Chimica Acta, 1088 pp. 20-34. ISSN 0003-2670 (2019) [Refereed Article]
Copyright 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This review critically discusses the developments on open-tubular liquid chromatography (OT-LC) and open-tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC) during 2014–2018. An appropriate Scopus search revealed 5 reviews, 4 theoretical papers on open-tubular format chromatography, 29 OT-LC articles, 68 OT-CEC articles and 4 OT-LC/OT-CEC articles, indicating a sustained interest in these areas. The open-tubular format typically uses a capillary column with inner walls that are coated with an ample layer or coating of solid stationary phase material. The ratio between the capillary internal diameter and coating thickness (CID/CT) is ideally ≤ 100 for appropriate chromatographic retention. We, therefore, approximated the CID/CT ratios and found that 22 OT-LC papers have CID/CT ratios ≤100. The other 7 OT-LC papers have CID/CT ratio >100 but have clearly demonstrated chromatographic retention. These 29 papers utilised reversed phase or ion exchange mechanisms using known or innovative solid stationary phase materials (e.g. metal organic frameworks), stationary pseudophases from ionic surfactants or porous supports. On the other hand, we found that 68 OT-CEC papers, 7 OT-LC papers and 4 OT-LC & OT-CEC papers have CID/CT ratios >100. Notably, 44 papers (42 OT-CEC and 2 OT-LC & OT-CEC) did not report the retention factor and/or effective electrophoretic mobility of analytes. Considering all covered papers, the most popular activity was on the development of new chromatographic materials as coatings. However, we encourage OT-CEC researchers to not only characterise changes in the electroosmotic flow but also verify the interaction of the analytes with the coating. In addition, the articles reported were largely driven by stationary phase or support development and not by practical applications.