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Free surface effect on the hydrodynamics of an underwater vehicle hullform, The DARPA SUBOFF


Ling, XW and Leong, ZQ and Chin, CKH and Woodward, MD, Free surface effect on the hydrodynamics of an underwater vehicle hullform, The DARPA SUBOFF, International Journal of Maritime Engineering, 164, (1) pp. 1-14. ISSN 1479-8751 (2022) [Refereed Article]

Copyright Statement

2022: The Royal Institution of Naval Architects.

Official URL:

DOI: doi:10.5750/ijme.v164i1.732


This paper presents the numerical study on the hydrodynamic coefficients of the submarine hull form "DARPA SUBOFF" when deeply submerged and near the free surface when travelling straight ahead and at a range of drift angles. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)-based numerical model was validated with experimental data existing in the public domain for the SUBOFF, travelling over a range of drift angles when deeply submerged at a constant speed and in a straight line near the free surface over a range of speeds. The free surface effect on the hydrodynamic behaviour of the SUBOFF was then investigated throughout a range of speeds, drift angles and submergence depths. Results show that the effects of the free surface diminish rapidly with submergence and the near free surface hydrodynamic behaviour of the SUBOFF is highly Froude number dependent.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:free surface, SUBOFF, CFD, submergence depth, drift angle
Research Division:Engineering
Research Group:Maritime engineering
Research Field:Ship and platform structures (incl. maritime hydrodynamics)
Objective Division:Transport
Objective Group:Water transport
Objective Field:Autonomous water vehicles
UTAS Author:Ling, XW (Mr Xavier Ling)
UTAS Author:Leong, ZQ (Dr Zhi Leong)
UTAS Author:Chin, CKH (Dr Chris Chin)
UTAS Author:Woodward, MD (Associate Professor Michael Woodward)
ID Code:150475
Year Published:2022
Web of Science® Times Cited:1
Deposited By:NC Maritime Engineering and Hydrodynamics
Deposited On:2022-06-16
Last Modified:2022-08-16

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