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A sustained ocean observing system in the Indian Ocean for climate related scientific knowledge and societal needs


Hermes, JC and Masumoto, Y and Beal, LM and Roxy, MK and Vialard, J and Andres, M and Annamalai, H and Behera, S and D'Adamo, N and Doi, T and Feng, M and Han, W and Hardman-Mountford, N and Hendon, H and Hood, R and Kido, S and Lee, C and Lees, T and Lengaigne, M and Li, J and Lumpkin, R and Navaneeth, KN and Milligan, B and McPhaden, MJ and Ravichandran, M and Shinoda, T and Singh, A and Sloyan, B and Strutton, PG and Subramanian, AC and Thurston, S and Tozuka, T and Ummenhofer, CC and Unnikrishnan, AS and Venkatesan, R and Wang, D and Wiggert, J and Yu, L and Yu, W, A sustained ocean observing system in the Indian Ocean for climate related scientific knowledge and societal needs, Frontiers in Marine Science, 6 Article 355. ISSN 2296-7745 (2019) [Refereed Article]

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Copyright Statement

2019. The Authors. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License ( The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

DOI: doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00355


The Indian Ocean is warming faster than any of the global oceans and its climate is uniquely driven by the presence of a landmass at low latitudes, which causes monsoonal winds and reversing currents. The food, water, and energy security in the Indian Ocean rim countries and islands are intrinsically tied to its climate, with marine environmental goods and services, as well as trade within the basin, underpinning their economies. Hence, there are a range of societal needs for Indian Ocean observation arising from the influence of regional phenomena and climate change on, for instance, marine ecosystems, monsoon rains, and sea-level. The Indian Ocean Observing System (IndOOS), is a sustained observing system that monitors basin-scale ocean-atmosphere conditions, while providing flexibility in terms of emerging technologies and scientific and societal needs, and a framework for more regional and coastal monitoring. This paper reviews the societal and scientific motivations, current status, and future directions of IndOOS, while also discussing the need for enhanced coastal, shelf, and regional observations. The challenges of sustainability and implementation are also addressed, including capacity building, best practices, and integration of resources. The utility of IndOOS ultimately depends on the identification of, and engagement with, end-users and decision-makers and on the practical accessibility and transparency of data for a range of products and for decision-making processes. Therefore we highlight current progress, issues and challenges related to end user engagement with IndOOS, as well as the needs of the data assimilation and modeling communities. Knowledge of the status of the Indian Ocean climate and ecosystems and predictability of its future, depends on a wide range of socio-economic and environmental data, a significant part of which is provided by IndOOS.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:Indian Ocean, sustained observing system, IndOOS, data, end-user connections and application, regional observing system, interdisciplinary, integration
Research Division:Earth Sciences
Research Group:Oceanography
Research Field:Physical oceanography
Objective Division:Environmental Management
Objective Group:Marine systems and management
Objective Field:Oceanic processes (excl. in the Antarctic and Southern Ocean)
UTAS Author:Strutton, PG (Professor Peter Strutton)
ID Code:150344
Year Published:2019
Funding Support:Australian Research Council (CE170100023)
Web of Science® Times Cited:32
Deposited By:Oceans and Cryosphere
Deposited On:2022-06-09
Last Modified:2022-08-24
Downloads:9 View Download Statistics

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