Biochar optimizes wheat quality, yield, and nitrogen acquisition in low fertile calcareous soil treated with organic and mineral nitrogen fertilizers
Khan, MA and Basir, A and Fahad, S and Adnan, M and Saleem, MH and Iqbal, A and Amanullah and Al-Huqail, AA and Alosaimi, AA and Saud, S and Liu, K and Harrison, MT and Nawaz, T, Biochar optimizes wheat quality, yield, and nitrogen acquisition in low fertile calcareous soil treated with organic and mineral nitrogen fertilizers, Frontiers in Plant Science, 13 Article 879788. ISSN 1664-462X (2022) [Refereed Article]
Crop quality and nutrient uptake are considerably influenced by fertilizers inputs and their application rate. Biochar (BC) improves nitrogen uptake and crop productivity. However, its interaction with synthetic and organic fertilizers in calcareous soil is not fully recognized. Therefore, we inspected the role of biochar (0, 10, 20, and 30 t ha–1) in improving N uptake and quality of wheat in a calcareous soil under integrated N management (90, 120, and 150 kg N ha–1) applied each from urea, farmyard manure (FYM) and poultry manure (PM) along with control) in 2 years field experiments. Application of 20 t BC along with 150 kg N ha–1 as poultry manure considerably improved wheat grain protein content (14.57%), grain (62.9%), straw (28.7%), and biological (38.4%) yield, grain, straw, and total N concentration by 14.6, 19.2, and 15.6% and their uptake by 84.6, 48.8, and 72.1%, respectively, over absolute control when averaged across the years. However, their impact was more pronounced in the 2nd year (2016–2017) after application compared to the 1st year (2015–2016). Therefore, for immediate crop benefits, it is recommended to use 20 t BC ha–1 once in 50 years for enhancing the nitrogen use efficiency of fertilizers and crop yield.