eCite Digital Repository

Is mindfulness a noticeable quality? Development and validation of the observed mindfulness measure


Barlett, L and Martin, AJ and Bruno, R and Kilpatrick, M and Sanderson, Kristy and Neil, AL, Is mindfulness a noticeable quality? Development and validation of the observed mindfulness measure, Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 44, (1) pp. 165-185. ISSN 0882-2689 (2021) [Refereed Article]

Copyright Statement

© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2021

DOI: doi:10.1007/s10862-021-09936-6


This paper presents the psychometric development of a new observer-report research questionnaire for assessing aspects of an individual’s mindfulness that are noticeable to others. Items from five established self-report mindfulness scales were re-worded for observer-report, and 30 were endorsed for potential inclusion by an expert panel (n = 5). Factor analytic and item response theory models were used to test item and scale psychometrics with data (N = 494) in three independent samples. A nine-item, three-factor scale with good fit indices was determined (RMSEA = 0.04, CFI = 0.99, TLI = 0.99). The instrument provides an overall score for observed mindful behaviours and subscale scores for observed attentiveness, awareness and acceptance. Within-subject test–retest reliability was strong (ICC 0.91) and agreement between observed mindful behaviours and self-reported mindfulness was adequate (ICC 0.45). Validity tests showed concordance between the new scale and self-reported mindfulness within the selected nomological network constructs (emotional intelligence, empathy and avoidant behaviours). Responsiveness was indicated but unconfirmed in data from a randomized controlled trial of low-dose mindfulness training. The Observed Mindfulness Measure (OMM) is a quantitative instrument that can provide an additional data source to strengthen self-reported findings in mindfulness research. With some further refinement this new instrument can advance research into whether and how mindfulness training might make a noticeable difference in social and organizational domains.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:mindfulness, social behaviour, measurement, psychometrics, observer-reports
Research Division:Psychology
Research Group:Applied and developmental psychology
Research Field:Testing, assessment and psychometrics
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Public health (excl. specific population health)
Objective Field:Behaviour and health
UTAS Author:Barlett, L (Mrs Larissa Bartlett)
UTAS Author:Martin, AJ (Professor Angela Martin)
UTAS Author:Bruno, R (Associate Professor Raimondo Bruno)
UTAS Author:Kilpatrick, M (Dr Michelle Kilpatrick)
UTAS Author:Sanderson, Kristy (Associate Professor Kristy Sanderson)
UTAS Author:Neil, AL (Associate Professor Amanda Neil)
ID Code:149780
Year Published:2021
Web of Science® Times Cited:1
Deposited By:Wicking Dementia Research and Education Centre
Deposited On:2022-04-12
Last Modified:2022-05-23

Repository Staff Only: item control page