An observation-based approach to calculating ice-shelf calving mass flux
Evans, E and Fraser, AD and Cook, S and Coleman, R and Joughin, I, An observation-based approach to calculating ice-shelf calving mass flux, Remote Sensing of Environment, 272 Article 112918. ISSN 0034-4257 (2022) [Refereed Article]
In order to determine whether the calving flux of an ice shelf is changing, the long-term calving flux needs to be established. Methods used to estimate the calving flux either take into account non-steady-state behaviour by capturing movement of the calving-front location (e.g., using satellite observations), or they assume the calving front is stationary and that the ice is in steady state (e.g., flux-gate methods). Non-steady-state methods are hampered by the issue of temporal aliasing, i.e., when the satellite observation frequency is insufficient to capture the cyclic nature of the calving-front position. Methods that assume a steady state to estimate the calving flux accrue uncertainties if the ice shelf changes its physical state. In order to overcome these limitations we propose and implement a new observation-based approach that combines a time series of calving-front locations with a flux-gate method. The approach involves the creation of a unique semi-temporal domain as a mechanism to overcome the issue of temporal aliasing, and only requires easily accessible ice thickness and surface velocity estimates of the ice shelf. This approach allows for complex calving-front geometries and captures calving events of all sizes that are visible within the satellite imagery. Application of the approach allows the long-term average calving flux to be estimated (provided sufficient temporal coverage by satellite imagery), as well as identification of the minimum temporal baseline needed to produce a representative estimate of the long-term average calving flux, for any ice shelf. Implementation of the approach to multiple ice shelves would enable comparisons to be made regarding the spatial variability in the long-term calving flux of Antarctica's ice shelves, thereby highlighting calving regime change around the continent.