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Prevalence and clinical significance of residual or reconverted red bone marrow on knee MRI


Vo, MT and Singh, A and Meng, T and Kaur, J and Venn, A and Cicuttini, F and March, L and Cross, M and Dwyer, T and Halliday, A and Jones, G and Ding, C and Antony, B, Prevalence and clinical significance of residual or reconverted red bone marrow on knee MRI, Diagnostics, 11, (9) pp. 1-11. ISSN 2075-4418 (2021) [Refereed Article]

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Copyright: 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license (

DOI: doi:10.3390/diagnostics11091531


Background:Residual/reconverted red bone marrow (RBM) in adult knees is occasionally observed on routine knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We aimed to identify its prevalence, distribution, and associations with lifestyle factors, knee structural abnormalities, and knee symptoms in young adults.

Methods: Participants (n = 327; aged = 31-41 years) were selected from the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health (CDAH) knee study. They underwent T1-weighted and proton-density-weighted fat-suppressed MRI scans of knees. Residual/reconverted RBM in distal femur and proximal tibia were graded semi-quantitatively (grades: 0-3) based on the percentage area occupied. Knee structural abnormalities were graded semi-quantitatively using previously published MRI scoring systems. Knee symptoms (pain, stiffness, and dysfunction) were assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scale during CDAH knee study (year: 2008-2010) and at 6-9-year follow-up during the CDAH-3 study (year: 2014-2019). Associations between definite RBM (grade ≥ 2) and lifestyle factors, knee symptoms, and structural abnormalities were described using log-binomial regressions.

Results: Definite RBM was seen in females only, in 29 out of 154 cases (18.8%), with femoral involvement preceding tibial involvement. Definite RBM was associated with increased BMI (PR = 1.09/kg/m2; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.16), overweight status (PR = 2.19; 95% CI: 1.07, 4.51), and WOMAC knee pain (PR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.74) in cross-section analysis. However, there was no association between RBM and knee-pain after seven years (PR = 1.15; 95% CI: 0.66, 2.00). There were no associations between RBM and knee structural abnormalities.

Conclusion: Presence of definite RBM in young adult knees was observed in females only. Definite RBM was associated with overweight measures, and the modest association with knee pain may not be causally related.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:knee pain, magnetic resonance imaging, residual/reconverted red bone marrow, young adults
Research Division:Biomedical and Clinical Sciences
Research Group:Clinical sciences
Research Field:Radiology and organ imaging
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Clinical health
Objective Field:Diagnosis of human diseases and conditions
UTAS Author:Singh, A (Mr Ambrish Singh)
UTAS Author:Meng, T (Mr Tao Meng)
UTAS Author:Kaur, J (Ms Jasveen Kaur)
UTAS Author:Venn, A (Professor Alison Venn)
UTAS Author:Dwyer, T (Professor Terry Dwyer)
UTAS Author:Jones, G (Professor Graeme Jones)
UTAS Author:Ding, C (Professor Chang-Hai Ding)
UTAS Author:Antony, B (Dr Benny Eathakkattu Antony)
ID Code:147729
Year Published:2021
Deposited By:Menzies Institute for Medical Research
Deposited On:2021-11-12
Last Modified:2022-10-24
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