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Mapping and evaluating marine protected areas and ecosystem services: a transdisciplinary Delphi forecasting process framework


Belgrano, A and Novaglio, C and Svedang, H and Villasante, S and Melian, CJ and Blenckner, T and Bergstrom, U and Bryhn, A and Bergstrom, L and Bartolino, V and Skold, M and Tomczak, M and Wikstrom, SA and Hansen, AS and Linke, S and Emmerson, R and Morf, A and Tonnesson, K, Mapping and evaluating marine protected areas and ecosystem services: a transdisciplinary Delphi forecasting process framework, Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 9 Article 652492. ISSN 2296-701X (2021) [Refereed Article]

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Copyright Statement

Copyright © 2021 Belgrano, Novaglio, Svedäng, Villasante, Melián, Blenckner, Bergström, Bryhn, Bergström, Bartolino, Sköld, Tomczak,Wikström, Hansen, Linke, Emmerson, Morf and Tönnesson. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License ( The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

DOI: doi:10.3389/fevo.2021.652492


Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are an important tool for management and conservation and play an increasingly recognised role in societal and human well-being. However, the assessment of MPAs often lacks a simultaneous consideration of ecological and socio-economic outcomes, and this can lead to misconceptions on the effectiveness of MPAs. In this perspective, we present a transdisciplinary approach based on the Delphi method for mapping and evaluating Marine Protected Areas for their ability to protect biodiversity while providing Ecosystem Services (ES) and related human well-being benefits – i.e., the ecosystem outputs from which people benefit. We highlight the need to include the human dimensions of marine protection in such assessments, given that the effectiveness of MPAs over time is conditional on the social, cultural and institutional contexts in which MPAs evolve. Our approach supports Ecosystem-Based Management and highlights the importance of MPAs in achieving restoration, conservation, and sustainable development objectives in relation to EU Directives such as the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), the Maritime Spatial Planning Directive (MSPD), and the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP).

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:Marine Protected Area, Delphi approach, conservation, restoration, fisheries, blue economy, ecosystem-based management, human well-being, socioecological systems, surveys
Research Division:Agricultural, Veterinary and Food Sciences
Research Group:Fisheries sciences
Research Field:Aquaculture
Objective Division:Environmental Management
Objective Group:Coastal and estuarine systems and management
Objective Field:Rehabilitation or conservation of coastal or estuarine environments
UTAS Author:Novaglio, C (Dr Camilla Novaglio)
ID Code:147544
Year Published:2021
Web of Science® Times Cited:1
Deposited By:Ecology and Biodiversity
Deposited On:2021-11-08
Last Modified:2022-01-17
Downloads:3 View Download Statistics

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