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Genome and ecology of a novel Alteromonas podovirus, ZP6, representing a new viral genus, Mareflavirus


Wang, Z and Zhang, F and Liang, Y and Zheng, K and Gu, C and Zhang, W and Liu, Y and Zhang, X and Shao, H and Jiang, Y and Guo, C and He, H and Wang, H and Sung, YY and Mok, WJ and Wong, LL and He, J and McMinn, A and Wang, M, Genome and ecology of a novel Alteromonas podovirus, ZP6, representing a new viral genus, Mareflavirus, Microbiology Spectrum, 9, (2) Article e00463-21. ISSN 2165-0497 (2021) [Refereed Article]

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Copyright 2021 Wang et al. This is an Open Access article under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license. (

DOI: doi:10.1128/Spectrum.00463-21


Alteromonas is a ubiquitous, abundant, copiotrophic and phytoplankton-associated marine member of the Gammaproteobacteria with a range extending from tropical waters to polar regions and including hadal zones. Here, we describe a novel Alteromonas phage, ZP6, that was isolated from surface coastal waters of Qingdao, China. ZP6 contains a linear, double-stranded, 38,080-bp DNA molecule with 50.1% G+C content and 47 putative open reading frames (ORFs). Three auxiliary metabolic genes were identified, encoding metal-dependent phosphohydrolase, diaminopurine synthetase, and nucleotide pyrophosphohydrolase. The first two ORFs facilitate the replacement of adenine (A) by diaminopurine (Z) in phage genomes and help phages to evade attack from host restriction enzymes. The nucleotide pyrophosphohydrolase enables the host cells to stop programmed cell death and improves the survival rate of the host in a nutrient-depleted environment. Phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequences of whole genomes and comparative genomic analysis revealed that ZP6 is most closely related to Enhodamvirus but with low similarity (shared genes, <30%, and average nucleotide sequence identity, <65%); it is distinct from other bacteriophages. Together, these results suggest that ZP6 could represent a novel viral genus, here named Mareflavirus. Combining its ability to infect Alteromonas, its harboring of a diaminopurine genome-biosynthetic system, and its representativeness of an understudied viral group, ZP6 could be an important and novel model system for marine virus research.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:bacteriophage, Alteromonas, genomic and comparative genomic analysis, phylogenetic analysis, distribution
Research Division:Biological Sciences
Research Group:Microbiology
Research Field:Virology
Objective Division:Environmental Management
Objective Group:Marine systems and management
Objective Field:Marine biodiversity
UTAS Author:McMinn, A (Professor Andrew McMinn)
ID Code:147183
Year Published:2021
Web of Science® Times Cited:6
Deposited By:Ecology and Biodiversity
Deposited On:2021-10-18
Last Modified:2021-12-23
Downloads:8 View Download Statistics

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