Toward the widespread application of low-cost technologies in coastal ocean observing (Internet of Things for the Ocean)
Marcelli, M and Piermattei, V and Gerin, R and Brunetti, F and Pietrosemoli, E and Addo, S and Boudaya, L and Coleman, R and Nubi, O and Jojannes, R and Sarker, S and Sohou, Z and Zennaro, M and Whiltshire, K and Crise, A, Toward the widespread application of low-cost technologies in coastal ocean observing (Internet of Things for the Ocean), Mediterranean Marine Science, 22, (2) pp. 255-269. ISSN 1108-393X (2021) [Refereed Article]
The ability to access user-friendly, low-cost instrumentation remains a limiting factor in coastal ocean observing. The majority
of currently available marine observation equipment is difficult to deploy, costly to operate, and requires specific technical skills.
Moreover, a harmonized observation program for the world’s coastal waters has not yet been established despite the efforts of the
global ocean organizations. Global observational systems are mainly focused on open ocean waters and do not include coastal
and shelf areas, where models and satellites require large data sets for their calibration and validation. Fortunately, recent technological
advances have created opportunities to improve sensors, platforms, and communications that will enable a step-change in
coastal ocean observing, which will be driven by a decreasing cost of the components, the availability of cheap housing, low-cost
controller/data loggers based on embedded systems, and low/no subscription costs for LPWAN communication systems. Considering
the above necessities and opportunities, POGO’s OpenMODs project identified a series of general needs/requirements
to be met in an Open science development framework. In order to satisfy monitoring and research necessities, the sensors to be
implemented must be easily interfaced with the data acquisition and transmission system, as well as compliant with accuracy
and stability requirements. Here we propose an approach to co-design cost-effective observing modular instrument architecture
based on available low-cost measurement and data transmission technologies, able to be mounted/operated on various platforms.
This instrument can fit the needs of a large community that includes scientific research (including those in developing countries),
non-scientific stakeholders, and educators.
internet of things, low cost technologies, ocean observations