Origins, diversity and naturalization of Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae) in California
Yost, JM and Wise, SL and Love, NLR and Steane, DA and Jones, RC and Ritter, MK and Potts, BM, Origins, diversity and naturalization of Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae) in California, Forests, 12, (8) Article 1129. ISSN 1999-4907 (2021) [Refereed Article]
Eucalyptus globulus is native to southeastern Australia, including the island of Tasmania, but is one of the most widely grown hardwood forestry species in the world and is naturalized on several continents. We studied its naturalization in California, where the species has been planted for over 150 years. We sampled 70 E. globulus trees from 53 locations spanning the entire range of the species in California to quantify the genetic variation present and test whether particular genotypes or native origin affect variation in naturalization among locations. Diversity and native affinities were determined based on six nuclear microsatellite markers and sequences from a highly variable chloroplast DNA region (JLA+). The likely native origin was determined by DNA-based comparison with a range-wide native stand collection. Most of California’s E. globulus originated from eastern Tasmania. Genetic diversity in California is greatly reduced compared with that of the native Australian population, with a single chloroplast haplotype occurring in 66% of the Californian samples. Throughout California, the degree of E. globulus naturalization varies widely but was not associated with genotype or native origin of the trees, arguing that factors such as local climate and disturbance are more important than pre-introduction evolutionary history.