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Assessing the pyloric caeca and distal gut microbiota correlation with flesh color in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L., 1758)


Nguyen, CDH and Amoroso, G and Ventura, T and Elizur, A, Assessing the pyloric caeca and distal gut microbiota correlation with flesh color in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L., 1758), Microorganisms, 8, (8) Article 1244. ISSN 2076-2607 (2020) [Refereed Article]


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Copyright 2020 the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (

DOI: doi:10.3390/microorganisms8081244


The Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L., 1758) is a temperate fish species native to the northern Atlantic Ocean. The distinctive pink–red flesh color (i.e., pigmentation) significantly affects the market price. Flesh paleness leads to customer dissatisfaction, a loss of competitiveness, a drop in product value and, consequently, severe economic losses. This work extends our knowledge on salmonid carotenoid dynamics to include the interaction between the gut microbiota and flesh color. A significant association between the flesh color and abundance of specific bacterial communities in the gut microbiota suggests that color may be affected either by seeding resilient beneficial bacteria or by inhibiting the negative effect of pathogenic bacteria. We sampled 96 fish, which covered all phenotypes of flesh color, including the average color and the evenness of color of different areas of the fillet, at both the distal intestine and the pyloric caeca of each individual, followed by 16S rRNA sequencing at the V3-V4 region. The microbiota profiles of these two gut regions were significantly different; however, there was a consistency in the microbiota, which correlated with the flesh color. Moreover, the pyloric caeca microbiota also showed high correlation with the evenness of the flesh color (beta diversity index, PERMANOVA, p = 0.002). The results from the pyloric caeca indicate that Carnobacterium, a group belonging to the lactic acid bacteria, is strongly related to the flesh color and the evenness of the color between the flesh areas.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:microbiota, gut, Atlantic salmon
Research Division:Agricultural, Veterinary and Food Sciences
Research Group:Fisheries sciences
Research Field:Aquaculture
Objective Division:Animal Production and Animal Primary Products
Objective Group:Fisheries - aquaculture
Objective Field:Aquaculture fin fish (excl. tuna)
UTAS Author:Amoroso, G (Dr Gianluca Amoroso)
ID Code:146512
Year Published:2020
Web of Science® Times Cited:7
Deposited By:Sustainable Marine Research Collaboration
Deposited On:2021-09-10
Last Modified:2021-10-25
Downloads:7 View Download Statistics

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