Values are conceptualized as the standards individuals use to determine the status of events and actions and are considered to influence individuals’ behaviours, reasoning, and perceptions. Based on a synthesis of six school-based student values enhancement programs, this paper reports on the development of the Children’s Values Questionnaire (CVQ). This Questionnaire was conceptualized as composing of seven dimensions: Self-Concept; Behaviour; Healthy Life; Social; School Climate; Emotional Intelligence; World View and 26 related sub-dimensions. A total of 848 co-educational students (52% male, 48% female) from Years (Grades) 4 to 7, ages 9 to 13+ years, across 11 Australian schools completed the 95-item CVQ Questionnaire. The Cronbach alpha coefficient of the instrument was 0.94, indicating that the questionnaire had good internal consistency. The inter-correlation between its seven dimensions clustered at Pearson r = 0.55. An exploratory factor analysis was supportive of the CVQ’s theoretical construct (Norm Fit Index of the data to the theoretical construct, 0.09). Girls rated themselves higher than boys (p < 0.001) on items related to Playing by the Rules, Responsibility, Creativity, Empathy, and Communication, and boys rated themselves higher than girls on Physical Activities items (p < 0.001). Older students (Years 6 and 7) compared to younger students (Years 4 and 5) demonstrated greater discernment and differentiation of context (p < 0.05), the growing influence of peer friendship in their value beliefs and an increase in confidence in social settings (p < 0.001). The relationship of the CVQ to Schwartz’s Universal Valued Goals is reported in the paper, along with examples of the application of the CVQ in schools.