eCite Digital Repository

Exploring children’s values questionnaire: measurement, gender, and age issues


Fyffe, LR and Hay, I, Exploring children's values questionnaire: measurement, gender, and age issues, Education Sciences, 11, (7) Article 309. ISSN 2227-7102 (2021) [Refereed Article]

PDF (Published version)

Copyright Statement

Copyright: © 2021 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license (

DOI: doi:10.3390/educsci11070309


Values are conceptualized as the standards individuals use to determine the status of events and actions and are considered to influence individuals’ behaviours, reasoning, and perceptions. Based on a synthesis of six school-based student values enhancement programs, this paper reports on the development of the Children’s Values Questionnaire (CVQ). This Questionnaire was conceptualized as composing of seven dimensions: Self-Concept; Behaviour; Healthy Life; Social; School Climate; Emotional Intelligence; World View and 26 related sub-dimensions. A total of 848 co-educational students (52% male, 48% female) from Years (Grades) 4 to 7, ages 9 to 13+ years, across 11 Australian schools completed the 95-item CVQ Questionnaire. The Cronbach alpha coefficient of the instrument was 0.94, indicating that the questionnaire had good internal consistency. The inter-correlation between its seven dimensions clustered at Pearson r = 0.55. An exploratory factor analysis was supportive of the CVQ’s theoretical construct (Norm Fit Index of the data to the theoretical construct, 0.09). Girls rated themselves higher than boys (p < 0.001) on items related to Playing by the Rules, Responsibility, Creativity, Empathy, and Communication, and boys rated themselves higher than girls on Physical Activities items (p < 0.001). Older students (Years 6 and 7) compared to younger students (Years 4 and 5) demonstrated greater discernment and differentiation of context (p < 0.05), the growing influence of peer friendship in their value beliefs and an increase in confidence in social settings (p < 0.001). The relationship of the CVQ to Schwartz’s Universal Valued Goals is reported in the paper, along with examples of the application of the CVQ in schools.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:children, values, gender, development, assessment, primary students, pedagogy, teaching
Research Division:Education
Research Group:Specialist studies in education
Research Field:Teacher and student wellbeing
Objective Division:Education and Training
Objective Group:Teaching and curriculum
Objective Field:Pedagogy
UTAS Author:Hay, I (Professor Ian Hay)
ID Code:145038
Year Published:2021
Deposited By:Education
Deposited On:2021-06-26
Last Modified:2021-09-30
Downloads:6 View Download Statistics

Repository Staff Only: item control page