Focus on the role of seed tannins and pectolytic enzymes in the color development of Pinot noir wine
Sparrow, AM and Gill, W and Dambergs, RG and Close, DC, Focus on the role of seed tannins and pectolytic enzymes in the color development of Pinot noir wine, Current Research in Food Science, 4 pp. 405-413. ISSN 2665-9271 (2021) [Refereed Article]
Maceration techniques which promote the extraction of color pigments and tannin from grapes are often sought in Pinot noir winemaking to optimise color stability; alternatively, exogenous grape tannins may be included during fermentation. To examine the effect of seed-derived tannins and the use of pectolytic enzymes on color development in wines, conventional must preparations of Vitis vinifera L. cv Pinot noir grapes were compared with wines made using a supplementary addition of either a commercial seed tannin product or previously fermented seeds, while in a complementary experiment, seeds were sequentially removed during fermentation. After 6 months bottle aging, wines supplemented with either a commercial seed tannin solution (0.4 g/L), or fermented seeds (20% w/w seeds) had from 60% to 95% higher tannin concentration than the untreated wine, and up to 60% more monomeric anthocyanins. Conversely, when a third of the seeds were removed from the fermenting wine, the concentration of both tannin and non-bleachable pigments was 20–30% lower than in untreated wines and the wine hue had more red-purple tones. Exploration of the use of pectolytic enzymes in conjunction with seed removal was also found to have a significant impact on wine color parameters. Further insights on the timing of egress of tannin precursors from seeds was obtained from histochemical examination of the seeds that had been removed during alcoholic fermentation.