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Sub-clinical effects of outdoor smoke in affected communities


O'Dwyer, T and Abramson, MJ and Straney, L and Salimi, F and Johnston, F and Wheeler, AJ and O'Keeffe, D and Haikerwal, A and Reisen, F and Hopper, I and Dennekamp, M, Sub-clinical effects of outdoor smoke in affected communities, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18, (3) pp. 1-10. ISSN 1661-7827 (2021) [Refereed Article]


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Copyright 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://

DOI: doi:10.3390/ijerph18031131


Many Australians are intermittently exposed to landscape fire smoke from wildfires or planned (prescribed) burns. This study aimed to investigate effects of outdoor smoke from planned burns, wildfires and a coal mine fire by assessing biomarkers of inflammation in an exposed and predominantly older population. Participants were recruited from three communities in south-eastern Australia. Concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were continuously measured within these communities, with participants performing a range of health measures during and without a smoke event. Changes in biomarkers were examined in response to PM2.5 concentrations from outdoor smoke. Increased levels of FeNO (fractional exhaled nitric oxide) (β = 0.500 [95%CI 0.192 to 0.808] p < 0.001) at a 4 h lag were associated with a 10 g/m3 increase in PM2.5 levels from outdoor smoke, with effects also shown for wildfire smoke at 4, 12, 24 and 48-h lag periods and coal mine fire smoke at a 4 h lag. Total white cell (β = -0.088 [-0.171 to -0.006] p = 0.036) and neutrophil counts (β = -0.077 [-0.144 to -0.010] p = 0.024) declined in response to a 10 g/m3 increase in PM2.5. However, exposure to outdoor smoke resulting from wildfires, planned burns and a coal mine fire was not found to affect other blood biomarkers.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:FeNO, PM2.5, biomarkers, bushfire, landscape fire, neutrophils, smoke, white cell count
Research Division:Biomedical and Clinical Sciences
Research Group:Cardiovascular medicine and haematology
Research Field:Respiratory diseases
Objective Division:Environmental Policy, Climate Change and Natural Hazards
Objective Group:Other environmental policy, climate change and natural hazards
Objective Field:Other environmental policy, climate change and natural hazards not elsewhere classified
UTAS Author:Johnston, F (Professor Fay Johnston)
UTAS Author:Wheeler, AJ (Dr Amanda Wheeler)
ID Code:143651
Year Published:2021
Web of Science® Times Cited:1
Deposited By:Menzies Institute for Medical Research
Deposited On:2021-03-29
Last Modified:2022-08-30
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