The Dovyren Intrusive Complex (Southern Siberia, Russia): Insights into dynamics of an open magma chamber with implications for parental magma origin, composition, and Cu-Ni-PGE fertility
Ariskin, A and Danyushevsky, L and Nikolaev, G and Kislov, E and Fiorentini, M and McNeill, A and Kostitsyn, Y and Goemann, K and Feig, ST and Malyshev, A, The Dovyren Intrusive Complex (Southern Siberia, Russia): Insights into dynamics of an open magma chamber with implications for parental magma origin, composition, and Cu-Ni-PGE fertility, Lithos, 302-303 pp. 242-262. ISSN 0024-4937 (2018) [Refereed Article]
The Dovyren Intrusive Complex (DIC, Northern Baikal region, 728 Ma) includes the layered dunite-troctolite-gabbronorite Yoko-Dovyren massif (YDM), associated mafic-ultramafic sills, and dykes of olivine-rich to olivine-free gabbronorite. Major rock types of the DIC are presented, including a diversity of olivine orthocumulates to olivine-plagioclase and gabbroic adcumulates, carbonate-contaminated ultramafics and Cu-Ni-PGE mineralisation. Detailed comparisons of complete cross-sections of the YDM in its centre and at the NE and SW margins demonstrate differences in the cumulate succession, mineral chemistry, and geochemical structure that likely reflect variations in parental magma compositions. Combining petrochemical reconstructions for most primitive rocks and calculations using the COMAGMAT-5 model, it is shown that the central and peripheral parts of the intrusion formed by olivine-laden parental magmas ranged in their temperatures by 100 °C, approximately from 1290 °C (∼11 wt% MgO, olivine Fo88) to 1190 °C (∼8 wt% MgO, olivine Fo86). Thermodynamic modelling suggests that the most primitive high-Mg magma was S-undersaturated, whereas its derivatives became S-saturated at T < 1240-1200 °C. These estimates are consistent with geological observations that mostly sulphide-poor mineralisation occurs in the centre of the intrusion, whereas Cu-Ni sulphide ores (locally net-textured) occur in its NE and SW parts, as well as in the underlying peridotite sills. The primitive S-undersaturated olivine cumulates became sulphide-saturated at a post-cumulus stage. As a result, Ni-rich immiscible sulphides formed within and migrated through the early olivine-rich cumulate piles to generate poorly-mineralised plagiodunite. In the troctolite and gabbroic parts of the Dovyren chamber, sulphide immiscibility likely occurred at lower temperatures, producing Cu-rich sulphide precursors, which gave rise to the 'platinum group minera' (PGM-containing) troctolite and low-mineralised PGE-rich anorthosite in the Main Reef. The geochemical structure of the YDM demonstrates C-shaped distributions of TiO2, K2O, P2O5, and incompatible trace elements, which are 3-5 fold depleted in the cumulate rocks from the inner horizons of the intrusion with respect to the relatively thin lower and upper contact zones. In addition, a marked misbalance between estimates of the average composition of the YDM and that of the proposed olivine-laden parental magmas is established. This misbalance reflects a significant deficit of the YDM in incompatible elements, which argues that 60-70% of basaltic melts had to have been expelled from the Dovyren magma chamber during its consolidation. A possible scenario of the evolution of the open magma chamber is proposed.
Yoko-Dovyren, layered intrusion, Cu-Ni-PGE mineralisation, COMAGMAT-5, parental magma, sulphide immiscibility, open magma chamber, anomalous mantle source, thermodynamic modelling