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A systematic review of online examinations: a pedagogical innovation for scalable authentication and integrity


Butler-Henderson, K and Crawford, J, A systematic review of online examinations: a pedagogical innovation for scalable authentication and integrity, Computers and Education, 159 Article 104024. ISSN 0360-1315 (2020) [Refereed Article]

Copyright Statement

Copyright 2020 Elsevier Ltd.

DOI: doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2020.104024


Digitization and automation across all industries has resulted in improvements in efficiencies and effectiveness to systems and process, and the higher education sector is not immune. Online learning, e-learning, electronic teaching tools, and digital assessments are not innovations. However, there has been limited implementation of online invigilated examinations in many countries. This paper provides a brief background on online examinations, followed by the results of a systematic review on the topic to explore the challenges and opportunities. We follow on with an explication of results from thirty-six papers, exploring nine key themes: student perceptions, student performance, anxiety, cheating, staff perceptions, authentication and security, interface design, and technology issues. While the literature on online examinations is growing, there is still a dearth of discussion at the pedagogical and governance levels.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:adult learning applications, architectures for educational technology system, human-computer interface, pedagogical issues
Research Division:Education
Research Group:Education systems
Research Field:Higher education
Objective Division:Education and Training
Objective Group:Learner and learning
Objective Field:Higher education
UTAS Author:Butler-Henderson, K (Associate Professor Kerryn Butler-Henderson)
UTAS Author:Crawford, J (Dr Joseph Crawford)
ID Code:143252
Year Published:2020
Web of Science® Times Cited:43
Deposited By:Curriculum and Academic Development
Deposited On:2021-03-08
Last Modified:2021-06-30

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