eCite Digital Repository

Four steps for the Earth: mainstreaming the post-2020 global biodiversity framework


Milner-Gulland, EJ and Addison, P and Arlidge, WNS and Baker, J and Booth, H and Brooks, T and Bull, JW and Burgass, MJ and Ekstrom, J and zu Ermgassen, SOSE and Fleming, LV and Grub, HMJ and von Hase, A and Hoffmann, M and Hutton, J and Juffe-Bignoli, D and ten Kate, K and Kiesecker, J and Kumpel, NF and Maron, M and Newing, HS and Ole-Moiyoi, K and Sinclair, C and Sinclair, S and Starkey, M and Stuart, SN and Tayleur, C and Watson, JEM, Four steps for the Earth: mainstreaming the post-2020 global biodiversity framework, One Earth, 4, (1) pp. 75-87. ISSN 2590-3330 (2020) [Refereed Article]


Copyright Statement

Copyright 2021 The Authors. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

DOI: doi:10.1016/j.oneear.2020.12.011


The upcoming Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) meeting, and adoption of the new Global Biodiversity Framework, represent an opportunity to transform humanity's relationship with nature. Restoring nature while meeting human needs requires a bold vision, including mainstreaming biodiversity conservation in society. We present a framework that could support this: the Mitigation and Conservation Hierarchy. This places the Mitigation Hierarchy for mitigating and compensating the biodiversity impacts of developments (1, avoid; 2, minimize; 3, restore; and 4, offset, toward a target such as "no net loss" of biodiversity) within a broader framing encompassing all conservation actions. We illustrate its application by national governments, sub-national levels (specifically the city of London, a fishery, and Indigenous groups), companies, and individuals. The Mitigation and Conservation Hierarchy supports the choice of actions to conserve and restore nature, and evaluation of the effectiveness of those actions, across sectors and scales. It can guide actions toward a sustainable future for people and nature, supporting the CBD's vision.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:conservation, mitigation, hierarchy, no net loss, net gain, Convention on Biological Diversity, restoration, offsetting, cities, Indigenous peoples and local communities, business
Research Division:Environmental Sciences
Research Group:Environmental management
Research Field:Conservation and biodiversity
Objective Division:Environmental Management
Objective Group:Terrestrial systems and management
Objective Field:Assessment and management of terrestrial ecosystems
UTAS Author:Brooks, T (Dr Thomas Brooks)
ID Code:142972
Year Published:2020
Web of Science® Times Cited:31
Deposited By:Ecology and Biodiversity
Deposited On:2021-02-18
Last Modified:2021-06-21
Downloads:24 View Download Statistics

Repository Staff Only: item control page