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Cytokines and immunity to viral infections


Ramshaw, IA and Ramsay, AJ and Karupiah, G and Rolph, MS and Mahalingam, RS and Ruby, JC, Cytokines and immunity to viral infections, Immunological Reviews, 159 pp. 119-135. ISSN 0105-2896 (1997) [Refereed Article]

Copyright Statement

Copyright 1997 Munksgaard

DOI: doi:10.1111/j.1600-065x.1997.tb01011.x


In this review, we discuss two broad approaches we have taken to study the role of cytokines and chemokines in antiviral immunity. Firstly, recombinant vaccinia viruses were engineered to express genes encoding cytokines and chemokines of interest. Potent antiviral activity was mediated by many of these encoded factors, including IL-2, IL-12, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, CD40L, Mig and Crg-2. In some cases, host defense mechanisms were induced (IL-2, IL-12, Mig and Crg-2), whilst for others, a direct antiviral effect was demonstrated (IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and CD40L). In sharp contrast, vector-directed expression of IL-4, a type 2 factor, greatly increased virus virulence, due to a downregulation of host type 1 immune responses. Our second experimental approach involved the use of strains of mice deficient for the production of particular cytokines or their receptors, often in combination with our engineered viruses. Mice deficient in either IFN-gamma, IFN-gamma R, IFN-alpha/beta R, TNFRs, CD40 or IL-6 were, in general, highly susceptible to poxvirus infection. Surprisingly, not only the TNFR1, but also the TNFR2, was able to mediate the antiviral effects of TNF-alpha in vivo, whilst the antiviral activity observed following CD40-CD40L interaction is a newly defined function which may involve apoptosis of infected cells. Through the use of perforin-deficient mice, we were able to demonstrate a requirement for this molecule in the clearance of some viruses, such as ectromelia virus, whilst for others, such as vaccinia virus, perforin was less important but IFN-gamma was essential.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:Cytokines; antiviral immunity; resistance to disease
Research Division:Biomedical and Clinical Sciences
Research Group:Immunology
Research Field:Cellular immunology
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Clinical health
Objective Field:Prevention of human diseases and conditions
UTAS Author:Karupiah, G (Associate Professor Guna Karupiah)
ID Code:142847
Year Published:1997
Web of Science® Times Cited:222
Deposited By:Medicine
Deposited On:2021-02-12
Last Modified:2021-06-30

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