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Type 1 and type 2 cytokines in antiviral defense


Karupiah, G, Type 1 and type 2 cytokines in antiviral defense, Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 63, (1-2) pp. 105-9. ISSN 0165-2427 (1998) [Substantial Review]

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DOI: doi:10.1016/s0165-2427(98)00086-5


Ectromelia virus (EV) is a natural mouse pathogen that causes a generalized infection termed mousepox, which, in the genetically resistant C57BL/6 (B6) mouse, is an inapparent disease. In contrast, BALB/c and A strain mice are highly susceptible; one infectious virus particle can result in 100% mortality. The contribution of cytokines in the induction of protective immune responses and recovery from infection with EV in B6, BALB/c and A strain mice have been. In the spleen and lymph node (LN) of resistant B6 mice, IL-2, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha were induced rapidly with large numbers of cells producing these cytokines. All three cytokines were virtually absent in BALB/c and A strain mice. No significant differences were found in the numbers of IL-4 producing cells in the spleen or LN of both resistant and susceptible mice. IFN-gamma-producing cells were detected in the spleen but not in the lymph node whereas IL-2-producing cells were detected only in the lymph node of B6 mice. Despite significant increases in the IFN-gamma mRNA levels in the LN of B6 mice, no protein was detected by immunocytochemistry. The mRNA levels of IL-2, TNF-alpha and IL-12 were also rapidly upregulated in LN of B6 mice. The rapid induction of type I cytokines strongly correlated with a potent antiviral CTL response in B6 mice. The absence of these cytokines also correlated with a complete absence or delayed induction of CTL responses to EV in both the BALB/c and A strain mice. IFN-gamma gene knock out mice on a B6 background were as susceptible to EV as the BALB/c and A strain mice.

Item Details

Item Type:Substantial Review
Keywords:Th1 and Th2 cytokines; antiviral immunity; resistance to disease; poxvirus
Research Division:Biomedical and Clinical Sciences
Research Group:Immunology
Research Field:Cellular immunology
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Clinical health
Objective Field:Prevention of human diseases and conditions
UTAS Author:Karupiah, G (Associate Professor Guna Karupiah)
ID Code:142846
Year Published:1998
Web of Science® Times Cited:53
Deposited By:Medicine
Deposited On:2021-02-12
Last Modified:2021-03-02

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