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International relevance of two measures of awareness of age-related change (AARC)


Sabatini, S and Ukoumunne, OC and Ballard, C and Brothers, A and Kaspar, R and Collins, R and Kim, S and Corbett, A and Aarsland, D and Hampshire, A and Brooker, H and Clare, L, International relevance of two measures of awareness of age-related change (AARC), BMC Geriatrics, 20, (1) Article 359. ISSN 1471-2318 (2020) [Refereed Article]


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Copyright 2020 the authors. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)

DOI: doi:10.1186/s12877-020-01767-6



A questionnaire assessing awareness of positive and negative age-related changes (AARC gains and losses) was developed in the US and Germany. We validated the short form of the measure (AARC-10 SF) and the cognitive functioning subscale from the 50-item version of the AARC (AARC-50) questionnaire in the UK population aged 50 and over.


Data from 9410 participants (Mean (SD) age = 65.9 (7.1)) in the PROTECT cohort were used to explore and confirm the psychometric properties of the AARC measures including: validity of the factor structure; reliability; measurement invariance across men and women, individuals with and without a university degree, and in middle age, early old age, and advanced old age; and convergent validity with measures of self-perception of aging and mental, physical, and cognitive health. We explored the relationship between demographic variables (age, sex, marital status, employment, and university education) and AARC.


We confirmed the two-factor structure (gains and losses) of the AARC-10 SF and the AARC-50 cognitive functioning subscale. Both scales showed good reliability and good convergent validity for AARC losses, but weak convergent validity for AARC gains. For both scales metric invariance was held for the two subgroups defined by education level and age. For the AARC-50 subscale, but not for the AARC-10 SF, strong invariance was also held for the two subgroups defined by sex. Age, sex, marital status, employment, and university education predicted AARC gains and losses.


The AARC-10 SF and AARC-50 cognitive functioning subscale identify UK individuals who perceive age-related changes in their mental, physical, and cognitive health.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:subjective aging, self-perceptions of aging, AARC-10 SF, cognitive functioning
Research Division:Psychology
Research Group:Applied and developmental psychology
Research Field:Psychology of ageing
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Specific population health (excl. Indigenous health)
Objective Field:Health related to ageing
UTAS Author:Kim, S (Dr Sarang Kim)
ID Code:142715
Year Published:2020
Web of Science® Times Cited:13
Deposited By:Wicking Dementia Research and Education Centre
Deposited On:2021-02-09
Last Modified:2021-05-26
Downloads:10 View Download Statistics

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