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Minimizing cross-realm threats from land-use change: A national-scale conservation framework connecting land, freshwater and marine systems


Tulloch, VJD and Atkinson, S and Possingham, HP and Peterson, N and Linke, S and Allan, JR and Kaiye, A and Keako, M and Sabi, J and Suruman, B and Adams, VM, Minimizing cross-realm threats from land-use change: A national-scale conservation framework connecting land, freshwater and marine systems, Biological Conservation, 254 Article 108954. ISSN 0006-3207 (2021) [Refereed Article]


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Copyright 2021 the authors. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)

DOI: doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2021.108954


There is a growing recognition that conservation strategies should be designed accounting for cross-realm connections, such as freshwater connections to land and sea, to ensure effectiveness of marine spatial protection and minimize perverse outcomes of changing land-use. Yet, examples of integration across realms are relatively scarce, with most targeting priorities in a single realm, such as marine or freshwater, while minimizing threats originating in terrestrial ecosystems. To date, no study has optimized priorities across multiple realms to produce a spatially explicit integrated conservation plan that simultaneously accounts for multiple human activities at a national scale. This represents a major gap in the application of existing cross-realm planning theory. We present a national scale conservation framework for selecting protected areas using a case study of Papua New Guinea (PNG) that integrates multiple systems and ecological connectivity to account for cross-realm benefits and minimize threats of land-use and climate change. The relative importance of both the forests and inshore reef environments to PNG subsistence and commercial livelihoods emphasizes the importance of considering the connections between the land and sea. The plan was commissioned by the PNG Conservation and Environment Protection Authority and identifies a comprehensive set of priorities that meet conservation targets in both the land and sea. Our national-scale prioritization framework is useful for agencies and managers looking to implement actions given multiple objectives, including watershed management and biodiversity protection, and ensures actions are efficient and effective across the land and sea.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:cross-realm planning, cross-realm threats, systematic conservation planning, land-sea planning, integrated coastal management, marine protected area, asymmetric connectivity, biodiversity conservation, ecological connection, marxan
Research Division:Environmental Sciences
Research Group:Environmental management
Research Field:Conservation and biodiversity
Objective Division:Environmental Management
Objective Group:Marine systems and management
Objective Field:Marine biodiversity
UTAS Author:Adams, VM (Associate Professor Vanessa Adams)
ID Code:142453
Year Published:2021
Web of Science® Times Cited:10
Deposited By:Geography and Spatial Science
Deposited On:2021-01-18
Last Modified:2022-08-25
Downloads:12 View Download Statistics

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