Amyloidosis is associated with thicker myelin and increased oligodendrogenesis in the adult mouse brain
Ferreira, SC and Pitman, KA and Wang, S and Summers, BS and Bye, N and Young, KM and Cullen, CL, Amyloidosis is associated with thicker myelin and increased oligodendrogenesis in the adult mouse brain, Journal of Neuroscience Research pp. 1-28. ISSN 0360-4012 (2020) [Refereed Article]
In Alzheimer's disease, amyloid plaque formation is associated with the focal death of oligodendrocytes and soluble amyloid β impairs the survival of oligodendrocytes in vitro. However, the response of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) to early amyloid pathology remains unclear. To explore this, we performed a histological, electrophysiological, and behavioral characterization of transgenic mice expressing a pathological form of human amyloid precursor protein (APP), containing three single point mutations associated with the development of familial Alzheimer's disease (PDGFB-APPSw.Ind, also known as J20 mice). PDGFB-APPSw.Ind transgenic mice had impaired survival from weaning, were hyperactive by 2 months of age, and developed amyloid plaques by 6 months of age, however, their spatial memory remained intact over this time course. Hippocampal OPC density was normal in P60-P180 PDGFB-APPSw.Ind transgenic mice and, by performing whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology, we found that their membrane properties, including their response to kainate (100 µM), were largely normal. However, by P100, the response of hippocampal OPCs to GABA was elevated in PDGFB-APPSw.Ind transgenic mice. We also found that the nodes of Ranvier were shorter, the paranodes longer, and the myelin thicker for hippocampal axons in young adult PDGFB-APPSw.Ind transgenic mice compared with wildtype littermates. Additionally, oligodendrogenesis was normal in young adulthood, but increased in the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and fimbria of PDGFB-APPSw.Ind transgenic mice as pathology developed. As the new oligodendrocytes were not associated with a change in total oligodendrocyte number, these cells are likely required for cell replacement.