Shiffman, S and Scholl, SM and Mao, J and Ferguson, SG and Hedeker, D and Tindle, HA, Ecological momentary assessment of temptations and lapses in non-daily smokers, Psychopharmacology ISSN 0033-3158 (2020) [Refereed Article]
Copyright 2020 Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature
Rationale: Little is known about relapse among non-daily, intermittent smokers (ITS), who have difficulty quitting, despite a lack of dependence.
Objectives: To analyze situations associated with temptations to smoke and smoking lapses among ITS trying to maintain abstinence.
Methods: Participants were 130 initially abstinent ITS in the placebo arm of a smoking cessation study. EMA data captured participantsísituations and states in temptations (n = 976), including those that eventuated in lapses (n = 147), for up to 6 weeks. Randomly timed assessments assessed background states (n = 11,446). Participants also reported coping performed to prevent lapses. Multilevel analyses compared temptations to background situations, and lapse episodes to resolved temptations.
Results: Temptations were marked by exposure to smoking cues, including others smoking, lax smoking restrictions, and alcohol consumption, as well as more negative affect. Lapses did not differ from resolved temptations in craving intensity, but were more often associated with smoking cues and availability of cigarettes, alcohol consumption, and worse affect, and were more often attributed to good moods. Both behavioral and cognitive coping responses were associated with avoiding lapsing, but behavioral coping had much larger effects. The effects of affective distress on lapse risk were mediated by its effects on coping.
Conclusions: Smoking cues play a major role in ITSí temptations and lapses, perhaps indicating a degree of behavioral dependence. Affective distress also played a role in ITS lapses, undermining the idea that the affective distress seen in daily smokersí lapses is due to nicotine withdrawal. The data reinforce the important role of coping in preventing lapses.
|Item Type:||Refereed Article|
|Keywords:||smoking, relapse, ecological momentary assessment, coping, smoking cessation, non-daily smoking|
|Research Division:||Health Sciences|
|Research Group:||Public health|
|Research Field:||Preventative health care|
|Objective Group:||Public health (excl. specific population health)|
|Objective Field:||Preventive medicine|
|UTAS Author:||Ferguson, SG (Professor Stuart Ferguson)|
|Web of Science® Times Cited:||2|
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