Liquid-phase microextraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: A review
Jalili, V and Barkhordari, A and Ghiasvand, A, Liquid-phase microextraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: A review, Reviews in Analytical Chemistry, 39 pp. 1-19. ISSN 0793-0135 (2020) [Refereed Article]
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of organic compounds comprised of two or more fused benzene rings, which arise from the incomplete combustion of organic materials. These compounds have been of concern as carcinogens and mutagens for the past 50-60 years. Lately, they are also receiving attention as endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Therefore, proper analytical methods are required for sampling and analyzing these compounds. In response to problems associated with the conventional methods like solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), many studies have focused on the miniaturization of different sample preparation techniques. In this regard, the use of different types of liquid phase microextraction (LPME) techniques has increased significantly during the recent few decades. LPME techniques are advantageous because they use single-step sample preparation and have shown a greater sensitivity, selectivity, and efficiency than the conventional methods. In addition, these techniques have good potential for automation, to reduce the time and cost of analysis. This review focuses on the most important configurations of LPME including single‐drop microextraction (SDME), hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME), and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) techniques used for the sampling and determination of PAHs in different samples, along with their cons and pros, as well as their prospects.