Adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus exhibit a greater exercise-induced increase in arterial stiffness and vessel hemodynamics
Cooke, AB and Dasgupta, K and Spronck, B and Sharman, JE and Daskalopoulou, SS, Adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus exhibit a greater exercise-induced increase in arterial stiffness and vessel hemodynamics, Hypertension, 75, (6) pp. 1565-1573. ISSN 0194-911X (2020) [Refereed Article]
Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have a greater blood pressure (BP) response to acute maximal exercise compared to those without T2DM; however, whether they exhibit a different arterial stiffness response to maximal exercise has yet to be explored. Adults with (n=66) and without T2DM (n=61) underwent an arterial stress test: at rest and immediately postexercise, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, the gold standard measure of arterial stiffness, brachial BP, heart rate, and other hemodynamic measurements were assessed. Linear regression models were used to evaluate between-group differences at rest, and the response to exercise (postexercise value), adjusting for covariates including BP and heart rate when relevant, and the corresponding baseline value of each parameter. All participants (mean±SD: age 59.3±10.6 years; body mass index 31.2±3.9 kg/m2) had hypertension (mean BP 130±14/80±9 mm Hg). At rest, participants with T2DM had significantly higher carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (10.3±2.7 versus 9.1±1.9 m/s), heart rate (69±11 versus 66±10 beats/min), and lower diastolic BP (79±9 versus 83±9 mm Hg), but systolic BP (129±15 versus 131±13 mm Hg) was similar. In response to exercise, participants with T2DM showed greater increases in carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (1.6 [95% CI, 0.4-2.9 m/s]) and systolic BP (9 [95% CI, 1-17 mm Hg]) than participants without T2DM. A greater proportion of participants with T2DM had a hypertensive response to exercise compared to participants without T2DM (n=23, 35% versus n=11, 18%; P=0.033). By incorporating exercise as a vascular stressor, we provide evidence of a greater increase in arterial stiffness in individuals with T2DM, independently of resting arterial stiffness, and the BP postexercise.