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Nonvalidated home blood pressure devices dominate the online marketplace in Australia: major implications for cardiovascular risk management


Picone, DS and Deshpande, RA and Schultz, MG and Fonseca, R and Campbell, NRC and Delles, C and Olsen, MH and Schutte, AE and Stergiou, G and Padwal, R and Zhang, X-H and Sharman, JE, Nonvalidated home blood pressure devices dominate the online marketplace in Australia: major implications for cardiovascular risk management, Hypertension, 75, (6) pp. 1593-1599. ISSN 0194-911X (2020) [Refereed Article]

Copyright Statement

2020 American Heart Association, Inc.

DOI: doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.14719


Self-home blood pressure (BP) monitoring is recommended to guide clinical decisions on hypertension and is used worldwide for cardiovascular risk management. People usually make their own decisions when purchasing BP devices, which can be made online. If patients purchase nonvalidated devices (those not proven accurate according to internationally accepted standards), hypertension management may be based on inaccurate readings resulting in under- or over-diagnosis or treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the number, type, percentage validated, and cost of home BP devices available online. A search of online businesses selling devices for home BP monitoring was conducted. Multinational companies make worldwide deliveries, so searches were restricted to BP devices available for one nation (Australia) as an example of device availability through the global online marketplace. Validation status of BP devices was determined according to established protocols. Fifty nine online businesses, selling 972 unique BP devices were identified. These included 278 upper-arm cuff devices (18.3% validated), 162 wrist-cuff devices (8.0% validated), and 532 wrist-band wearables (0% validated). Most BP devices (92.4%) were stocked by international e-commerce businesses (eg, eBay, Amazon), but only 5.5% were validated. Validated cuff BP devices were more expensive than nonvalidated devices: median (interquartile range) of 101.1 (75.0-151.5) versus 67.4 (30.4-112.8) Australian Dollars. Nonvalidated BP devices dominate the online marketplace and are sold at lower cost than validated ones, which is a major barrier to accurate home BP monitoring and cardiovascular risk management. Before purchasing a BP device, people should check it has been validated at

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:blood pressure determination, medical device legislation, device approval, hypertension, wearable electronic devices
Research Division:Biomedical and Clinical Sciences
Research Group:Cardiovascular medicine and haematology
Research Field:Cardiology (incl. cardiovascular diseases)
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Clinical health
Objective Field:Clinical health not elsewhere classified
UTAS Author:Picone, DS (Dr Dean Picone)
UTAS Author:Deshpande, RA (Ms Rewati Deshpande)
UTAS Author:Schultz, MG (Dr Martin Schultz)
UTAS Author:Fonseca, R (Mr Ricardo Fonseca Diaz)
UTAS Author:Sharman, JE (Professor James Sharman)
ID Code:139095
Year Published:2020
Web of Science® Times Cited:13
Deposited By:Menzies Institute for Medical Research
Deposited On:2020-05-26
Last Modified:2021-03-17

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