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Refocusing the 3P model to incorporate a learning and teaching environment and graduate attributes


Kember, D and Webster, BJ and Chan, WSC, Refocusing the 3P model to incorporate a learning and teaching environment and graduate attributes, Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology, 40, (5) ISSN 0144-3410 (2020) [Refereed Article]

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DOI: doi:10.1080/01443410.2020.1732304


The 3P (presage, process, product) model was introduced as a conceptualisation to underpin research into studentsí approaches to learning (SAL). This paper proposes the refocusing of the 3P model by formulating the initial presage phase as a teaching and learning environment, thus making the 3P model more consistent with SAL research which examines the influence of perceptions of aspects of teaching, learning and assessment on approaches to learning. The method was to use structural equation modelling to test a hypothesised version of the refocused 3P model. Data from a questionnaire administered to students at a university in Hong Kong showed a good fit to the data. The model showed that a teaching and learning environment influenced approaches to learning then impacted on the attainment of graduate attributes. The model showed that a well-designed teaching and learning environment, including teacher-student and student-student interaction, plus a lively co-curriculum had a part to play in promoting deep approaches to learning. Deep approaches then had a positive effect on attribute development in students.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:3P model, approaches to learning, teaching and learning environment, graduate attributes, structural equation modelling, learning communities
Research Division:Education
Research Group:Curriculum and pedagogy
Research Field:Curriculum and pedagogy theory and development
Objective Division:Education and Training
Objective Group:Learner and learning
Objective Field:Learner and learning not elsewhere classified
UTAS Author:Kember, D (Professor David Kember)
ID Code:138208
Year Published:2020
Web of Science® Times Cited:6
Deposited By:Education
Deposited On:2020-03-27
Last Modified:2021-09-30

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