Navaranjan, G and Takaro, TK and Wheeler, AJ and Diamond, ML and Shu, H and Azad, MB and Becker, AB and Dai, R and Harris, SA and Lefebvre, DL and Lu, Z and Mandhane, PJ and McLean, K and Moraes, TJ and Scott, JA and Turvey, SE and Sears, MR and Subbarao, P and Brook, JR, Early life exposure to phthalates in the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) study: a multi-city birth cohort, Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 30, (1) pp. 70-85. ISSN 1559-064X (2020) [Refereed Article]
Copyright 2019 The Authors, under exclusive licence to Springer Nature America, Inc.
Objective: To characterize exposure to phthalates during infancy and early childhood.
Methods: Environmental questionnaires were administered, and urine samples collected at 3, 12, and 36 months. In the first 1578 children, urine was analyzed for eight phthalate metabolites: mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), and mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP). Geometric mean (GM) concentrations were calculated by age, together with factors that may influence concentrations. Trends with age were examined using mixed models and differences within factors examined using ANOVA.
Results: The highest urinary concentration was for the metabolite MBP at all ages (GM: 15-32 ng/mL). Concentrations of all phthalate metabolites significantly increased with age ranging from GM: 0.5-15.1 ng/mL at 3 months and 1.9-32.1 ng/mL at 36 months. Concentrations of all metabolites were higher in the lowest income categories except for MEHP at 3 months, among children with any breastfeeding at 12 months, and in urine collected on dates with warmer outdoor temperatures (>17 °C), except for MBzP at 3 months and MEHP at 3 and 12 months. No consistent differences were found by gender, study site, or maternal age.
Conclusions: Higher phthalate metabolite concentrations were observed among children in lower income families. Examination of factors associated with income could inform interventions aimed to reduce infant phthalate exposure.
|Item Type:||Refereed Article|
|Keywords:||biological monitoring, children, exposure assessment, phthalates, socioeconomic status, urine, longitudinal|
|Research Division:||Environmental Sciences|
|Research Group:||Pollution and contamination|
|Research Field:||Pollution and contamination not elsewhere classified|
|Objective Group:||Public health (excl. specific population health)|
|Objective Field:||Public health (excl. specific population health) not elsewhere classified|
|UTAS Author:||Wheeler, AJ (Dr Amanda Wheeler)|
|Web of Science® Times Cited:||13|
|Deposited By:||Menzies Institute for Medical Research|
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