eCite Digital Repository

Early life exposure to phthalates in the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) study: a multi-city birth cohort


Navaranjan, G and Takaro, TK and Wheeler, AJ and Diamond, ML and Shu, H and Azad, MB and Becker, AB and Dai, R and Harris, SA and Lefebvre, DL and Lu, Z and Mandhane, PJ and McLean, K and Moraes, TJ and Scott, JA and Turvey, SE and Sears, MR and Subbarao, P and Brook, JR, Early life exposure to phthalates in the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) study: a multi-city birth cohort, Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 30, (1) pp. 70-85. ISSN 1559-064X (2020) [Refereed Article]

Copyright Statement

Copyright 2019 The Authors, under exclusive licence to Springer Nature America, Inc.

DOI: doi:10.1038/s41370-019-0182-x


Background: Few studies have examined phthalate exposure during infancy and early life, critical windows of development. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) study, a population-based birth cohort, ascertained multiple exposures during early life.

Objective: To characterize exposure to phthalates during infancy and early childhood.

Methods: Environmental questionnaires were administered, and urine samples collected at 3, 12, and 36 months. In the first 1578 children, urine was analyzed for eight phthalate metabolites: mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), and mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP). Geometric mean (GM) concentrations were calculated by age, together with factors that may influence concentrations. Trends with age were examined using mixed models and differences within factors examined using ANOVA.

Results: The highest urinary concentration was for the metabolite MBP at all ages (GM: 15-32 ng/mL). Concentrations of all phthalate metabolites significantly increased with age ranging from GM: 0.5-15.1 ng/mL at 3 months and 1.9-32.1 ng/mL at 36 months. Concentrations of all metabolites were higher in the lowest income categories except for MEHP at 3 months, among children with any breastfeeding at 12 months, and in urine collected on dates with warmer outdoor temperatures (>17 C), except for MBzP at 3 months and MEHP at 3 and 12 months. No consistent differences were found by gender, study site, or maternal age.

Conclusions: Higher phthalate metabolite concentrations were observed among children in lower income families. Examination of factors associated with income could inform interventions aimed to reduce infant phthalate exposure.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:biological monitoring, children, exposure assessment, phthalates, socioeconomic status, urine, longitudinal
Research Division:Environmental Sciences
Research Group:Pollution and contamination
Research Field:Pollution and contamination not elsewhere classified
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Public health (excl. specific population health)
Objective Field:Public health (excl. specific population health) not elsewhere classified
UTAS Author:Wheeler, AJ (Dr Amanda Wheeler)
ID Code:137597
Year Published:2020
Web of Science® Times Cited:17
Deposited By:Menzies Institute for Medical Research
Deposited On:2020-02-21
Last Modified:2022-08-29

Repository Staff Only: item control page