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Antibiotics self-medication among undergraduate pharmacy students in Northern Nigeria


Khalid, GM and Jatau, AI and Ibrahim, UI and Dungus, FM and Shitu, Z and Sha'aban, A and Burji, SL, Antibiotics self-medication among undergraduate pharmacy students in Northern Nigeria, Point of Care pp. 1-8. ISSN 1533-029X (2019) [Refereed Article]

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Copyright Statement

The Author(s) 2019. Creative Commons Non Commercial CC BY-NC: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (

DOI: doi:10.1177/2399202619846847


Introduction: The burden of antibiotic self-medication (ASM) is increasing and becoming a global health threat due to antibiotics resistance. However, little is known about ASM among undergraduate pharmacy students who are the future custodians of medicines including antibiotics. Therefore, this study aims to develop, validate and utilize an online survey tool to investigate the prevalence of ASM among undergraduate pharmacy students in Northern Nigeria.

Methods: A cross-sectional online survey form was developed, validated by face validity, content validity, and pilot study. The hyperlink to the online survey form was shared with undergraduate pharmacy students in northern Nigeria via WhatsApp, Facebook, and Twitter. Data were collected from eligible participants and analyzed using descriptive statistic.

Results: A total of 217 students responded to the online survey, with a completion rate of 100%. Of the total number of respondents, 200 (92.2%) reported practicing ASM at least once in their lifetime. The major reasons for ASM were previous knowledge (40.4%) and having no time to see a doctor or pharmacist (27.5%). Amoxicillin (32.6%), Amoxicillin/ Clavulanic acid (32.1%), Ampicillin/Cloxacillin (21.7%) and Ciprofloxacin (22.6%) were the most commonly implicated antibiotics in ASM. Cough, diarrhea, typhoid, and wound were the most frequently involved conditions. Patent medicine vendors (75.4%) and community pharmacies (29.4%) were the common source of antibiotics subjected to ASM.

Conclusion: A research tool to assess ASM among undergraduate pharmacy students has been developed, validated and utilized. The prevalence of ASM is high among undergraduate pharmacy students in Northern Nigeria. Interventions to improve knowledge and awareness on ASM are needed among undergraduate pharmacy students to ensure antibiotic stewardship.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:antibiotic, Nigeria, pharmacy, self-medication, stewardship, students, undergraduate
Research Division:Biomedical and Clinical Sciences
Research Group:Pharmacology and pharmaceutical sciences
Research Field:Toxicology (incl. clinical toxicology)
Objective Division:Expanding Knowledge
Objective Group:Expanding knowledge
Objective Field:Expanding knowledge in the health sciences
UTAS Author:Jatau, AI (Mr Ibrahim Jatau Abubakar)
ID Code:136721
Year Published:2019
Web of Science® Times Cited:2
Deposited By:Pharmacy
Deposited On:2020-01-15
Last Modified:2020-05-22
Downloads:1 View Download Statistics

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