Neighborhood physical food environment and cardiovascular risk factors in India: Cross-sectional evidence from APCAPS
Li, Y and Mallinson, PAC and Bhan, N and Turner, C and Bhogadi, S and Sharma, C and Aggarwal, A and Kulkarni, B and Kinra, S, Neighborhood physical food environment and cardiovascular risk factors in India: Cross-sectional evidence from APCAPS, Environment International, 132 pp. 1-7. ISSN 0160-4120 (2019) [Refereed Article]
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There has been increasing interest in associations between neighborhood food environments and cardiovascular risk factors. However, results from high-income countries remain inconsistent, and there has been limited research from low- and middle-income countries. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the third wave follow-up of the Andhra Pradesh children and parents study (APCAPS) (n = 5764, median age 28.8 years) in south India. We examined associations between the neighborhood availability (vendor density per km2 within 400 m and 1600 m buffers of households) and accessibility (distance from the household to the nearest vendor) of fruit/vegetable and highly processed/take-away food vendors with 11 cardiovascular risk factors, including adiposity measures, glucose-insulin, blood pressure, and lipid profile. In fully adjusted models, higher density of fruit/vegetable vendors within 400 m of participant households was associated with lower systolic blood pressure [-0.09 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.17, -0.02] and diastolic blood pressure (-0.10 mmHg, 95% CI: -0.17, -0.04). Higher density of highly processed/take-away food vendors within 400 m of participant households was associated with higher Body Mass Index (0.01 Kg/m2, 95% CI: 0.00, 0.01), waist circumference (0.22 mm, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.39), systolic blood pressure (0.03 mmHg, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.06), and diastolic blood pressure (0.03 mmHg, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.05). However, within 1600 m buffer, only association with blood pressure remained robust. No associations were found for between neighborhood accessibility and cardiovascular risk factors. Lower density of fruit/vegetable vendors, and higher density of highly processed/take-away food vendors were associated with adverse cardiovascular risk profiles. Public health policies regarding neighborhood food environments should be encouraged in south India and other rural communities in south Asia.
APCAPS, cardiovascular risk factors, food environment, fruit and vegetable, highly processed and take-away food