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Underground wireless data transmission using 433-MHz LoRa for agriculture


Hardie, M and Hoyle, D, Underground wireless data transmission using 433-MHz LoRa for agriculture, Sensors, 19, (19) Article 4232. ISSN 1424-8220 (2019) [Refereed Article]


Copyright Statement

Copyright 2019 The Authors. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)

DOI: doi:10.3390/s19194232


Wireless underground sensor networks (WUSNs) have potential for providing real-time data for agriculture and other industries without exposing sensors and communication infrastructure to damage. However, soil is a difficult environment for radio communication due to its dielectric properties and variable moisture content. Low-power, wide-area network (LPWAN) technologies have been used to develop aboveground sensor networks for many industries, but have not yet been successfully developed for underground applications. In this study, we developed a 433-MHz LoRa-based testbed for evaluating both underground-to-underground (UG2UG) and underground-to-aboveground (UG2AG) wireless communication technologies in four in situ soils. The maximum transmission distance for UG2UG operation was 4-20mdepending on soil type, whilst UG2AG operation was able to communicate up to 100-200 m, depending on the operating variables and soil properties. Signal quality and the maximum transmission distance were influenced by transmitter (TX) burial depth, TX power, data rate, receiver (RX) antenna type, and to a lesser extent, soil parameters. Results suggest that with improvements to power management, the development of 433-MHz LoRa-based UG2AG WUSNs for agricultural applications is readily achievable, whilst UG2UG applications appear unlikely without substantial improvement in transmission distance.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:wireless sensor network, belowground, agritech, agricultural technology, soil, wireless communication, LoRa
Research Division:Engineering
Research Group:Communications engineering
Research Field:Wireless communication systems and technologies (incl. microwave and millimetrewave)
Objective Division:Information and Communication Services
Objective Group:Communication technologies, systems and services
Objective Field:Communication technologies, systems and services not elsewhere classified
UTAS Author:Hardie, M (Mr Marcus Hardie)
UTAS Author:Hoyle, D (Mr Donald Hoyle)
ID Code:135611
Year Published:2019
Web of Science® Times Cited:19
Deposited By:TIA - Research Institute
Deposited On:2019-11-05
Last Modified:2020-03-30
Downloads:14 View Download Statistics

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