Flies, EJ and Mavoa, S and Zosky, GR and Mantzioris, E and Williams, C and Eri, R and Brook, BW and Buettel, JC, Urban-associated diseases: candidate diseases, environmental risk factors, and a path forward, Environment International pp. 1-47. ISSN 0160-4120 (In Press) [Refereed Article]
Objectives: To synthesize the current understanding of "urban-associated diseases", and discover the common, potentially modifiable features of cities that may be driving these associations.
Methods: We focus on any diseases that have been associated with cities or are particularly prominent in today’s urban societies. We draw on expertise across diverse health fields to examine the evidence for urban connections and drivers.
Discussion: We found evidence for urban associations across allergic, auto-immune, inflammatory, lifestyle and infectious disease categories. Some conditions (e.g. obesity and diabetes) have complex relationships with cities that have been insufficiently explored. Other conditions (e.g. allergies and asthma) have more evidence demonstrating their relationship with cities and the mechanisms driving that association. Unsurprisingly, air pollution was the characteristic of cities most frequently associated with disease. Other identified urban risk factors are not as widely known: altered microbial exposure and a disconnect from environmental microbiomes, vitamin D deficiency, noise and light pollution, and a transient, over-crowded, impoverished population. However, many complexities and caveats to these relationships beg clarification; we highlight the current knowledge gaps and outline ways to fill those gaps. Identifying urban-associated diseases and their drivers will allow us to prepare for the urban-disease burden of the future and create healthy cities that mitigate that disease burden.
|Item Type:||Refereed Article|
|Keywords:||urban, disease, microbial, exposure, air pollution, health, microbiome|
|Research Division:||Medical and Health Sciences|
|Research Group:||Public Health and Health Services|
|Research Field:||Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety|
|Objective Group:||Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health)|
|Objective Field:||Environmental Health|
|UTAS Author:||Flies, EJ (Dr Emily Flies)|
|UTAS Author:||Zosky, GR (Professor Graeme Zosky)|
|UTAS Author:||Eri, R (Associate Professor Raj Eri)|
|UTAS Author:||Brook, BW (Professor Barry Brook)|
|UTAS Author:||Buettel, JC (Dr Jessie Buettel)|
|Year Published:||In Press|
|Deposited By:||Plant Science|
Repository Staff Only: item control page