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Phenolic content of apple juice for cider making as influenced by common pre-fermentation processes using two analytical methods


Way, ML and Jones, JE and Swarts, ND and Dambergs, RG, Phenolic content of apple juice for cider making as influenced by common pre-fermentation processes using two analytical methods, Beverages, 5, (3) Article 53. ISSN 2306-5710 (2019) [Refereed Article]

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© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (

DOI: doi:10.3390/beverages5030053


Pre-fermentation methods can influence the cider produced from apple juice. This study analyses the influence of pre-fermentation methods; maceration and press fractioning, on the total phenolic content of juice from four apple varieties; ‘Red Delicious’, ‘Pink Lady’, ‘Sturmer’, and ‘Bulmer’s Norman’. The must was macerated for 0 or 2 h and juice was collected at free run or under 200 kpa. Base juice characteristics and total phenolic content was analysed using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and spectrophotometric absorbance at 280 nm (A280), a method used for the analysis of white wine. Both methods of analysing the total phenolic content were used, measuring the same samples to determine if the methods are comparable. No interaction was found between pre-fermentation technique and the results varied by variety and analytical method. High pressure improved the phenolic extraction for ‘Bulmer’s Norman’ juice compared to free run juice when analysed by A280. Non-macerated juice had higher total phenolic content than macerated juice for ‘Red Delicious’ and ‘Pink Lady’ juice when analysed using the Folin–Ciocalteu method. There was a moderate positive correlation between the analytical methods.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:maceration, press fractioning, Folic–Ciocalteu, spectrophotometric absorbance, cider, phenolics, chemistry, apples
Research Division:Agricultural, Veterinary and Food Sciences
Research Group:Horticultural production
Research Field:Horticultural production not elsewhere classified
Objective Division:Plant Production and Plant Primary Products
Objective Group:Horticultural crops
Objective Field:Pome fruit, pip fruit
UTAS Author:Way, ML (Miss Madeleine Way)
UTAS Author:Jones, JE (Dr Joanna Jones)
UTAS Author:Swarts, ND (Dr Nigel Swarts)
UTAS Author:Dambergs, RG (Dr Robert Dambergs)
ID Code:134873
Year Published:2019
Web of Science® Times Cited:4
Deposited By:TIA - Research Institute
Deposited On:2019-09-10
Last Modified:2020-04-01
Downloads:18 View Download Statistics

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