Direct photoimmobilization of extraction disks on “green state” 3D printed devices
Calderilla, C and Maya, F and Cerda, V and Leal, LO, Direct photoimmobilization of extraction disks on 'green state' 3D printed devices, Talanta, 202 pp. 67-73. ISSN 0039-9140 (2019) [Refereed Article]
Post-curing is essential to improve the mechanical properties of 3D printed parts fabricated by stereolithography (SLA), since right after 3D printing they remain in a "green state". It means that the 3D printed parts have reached their final shape, but the polymerization reaction has not been yet completed. Herein, we take advantage of the tacky partially polymerized surface of "green state" SLA 3D printed parts to immobilize extraction disks and miniature magnets, which after UV post-curing, become permanently attached to the 3D printed part resulting in a rotating-disk sorptive extraction device (RDSE). The developed "stick & cure" procedure is reagent-free and does not require any additional preparation time, specialized skills, or instrumentation. As proof of concept, 3D printed RDSE devices with immobilized chelating disks have been applied to the simultaneous extraction of 14 trace metals prior to ICP-OES determination, featuring LODs between 0.03 and 1.27 μg L ⁻¹ , and an excellent device-to-device reproducibility (n = 5, RSD = 2.7–8.3%). The developed method was validated using certified wastewater and soil reference samples, and satisfactory spiking recoveries were obtained in the analysis of highly polluted solid waste treatment plant leachates (89–110%). In addition, exploiting the versatility of 3D printing, nine RDSE devices with different shapes were fabricated. Their performance was evaluated and compared for the fast extraction of the highly toxic Cr (VI) as its 1,5-diphenylcarbazide complex in reversed-phase mode, showing different extraction performance on depending on the shape of the 3D printed RDSE device.