A core element in clinical diagnostics is the data interpretation obtained through the analysis of patient samples. To obtain relevant and reliable information, a methodological approach of sample preparation, separation, and detection is required. Traditionally, these steps are performed independently and stepwise. Microchip capillary electrophoresis (MCE) can provide rapid and high-resolution separation with the capability to integrate a streamlined and complete diagnostic workflow suitable for the point-of-care setting. Whilst standard clinical diagnostics methods normally require hours to days to retrieve specific patient data, MCE can reduce the time to minutes, hastening the delivery of treatment options for the patients. This review covers the advances in MCE for disease detection from 2008 to 2017. Miniaturised diagnostic approaches that required an electrophoretic separation step prior to the detection of the biological samples are reviewed. In the two main sections, the discussion is focused on the technical set-up used to suit MCE for disease detection and on the strategies that have been applied to study various diseases. Throughout these discussions MCE is compared to other techniques to create context of the potential and challenges of MCE. A comprehensive table categorised based on the studied disease using MCE is provided. We also comment on future challenges that remain to be addressed.