Emerging role and characterization of immunometabolism: Relevance to HIV pathogenesis, serious non-AIDS events, and a cure
Palmer, CS and Henstridge, DC and Yu, D and Singh, A and Balderson, B and Duette, G and Cherry, CL and Anzinger, JJ and Ostrowski, M and Crowe, SM, Emerging role and characterization of immunometabolism: Relevance to HIV pathogenesis, serious non-AIDS events, and a cure, Journal of Immunology, 196, (11) pp. 4437-4444. ISSN 0022-1767 (2016) [Refereed Article]
Copyright 2016 The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
Immune cells cycle between a resting and an activated state. Their metabolism is tightly linked to their activation status and, consequently, functions. Ag recognition induces T lymphocyte activation and proliferation and acquisition of effector functions that require and depend on cellular metabolic reprogramming. Likewise, recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by monocytes and macrophages induces changes in cellular metabolism. As obligate intracellular parasites, viruses manipulate the metabolism of infected cells to meet their structural and functional requirements. For example, HIV-induced changes in immune cell metabolism and redox state are associated with CD4+ T cell depletion, immune activation, and inflammation. In this review, we highlight how HIV modifies immunometabolism with potential implications for cure research and pathogenesis of comorbidities observed in HIV-infected patients, including those with virologic suppression. In addition, we highlight recently described key methods that can be applied to study the metabolic dysregulation of immune cells in disease states.
HIV, pathogen associated molecular pattern, antigen recognition, CD4+ T lymphocyte, cell activation, cell cycle, cell function, cell metabolism, comorbidity, human, human immunodeficiency virus infected patient, human immunodeficiency virus infection